Opinions from 2022

Biden v. Texas
Docket Number: 21-954
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: June 30, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: In 2019, the Department of Homeland Security implemented the Migrant Protection Protocols (MPP): certain non-Mexican nationals arriving by land from Mexico were returned to Mexico to await the results of their removal proceedings. ...

West Virginia v. Environmental Protection Agency
Docket Number: 20-1530
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: June 30, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: In 2015, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated the Clean Power Plan rule, which addressed carbon dioxide emissions from existing power plants, citing Section 111 of the Clean Air Act,” 42 U.S.C. 7411(d). ...

Oklahoma v. Castro-Huerta
Docket Number: 21-429
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: June 29, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Castro-Huerta was convicted of child neglect in Oklahoma state court. The Supreme Court subsequently held that the Creek Nation’s eastern Oklahoma reservation was never properly disestablished and remained “Indian country.” ...

Torres v. Texas Department of Public Safety
Docket Number: 20-603
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: June 29, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Enacted pursuant to Article I of the Constitution, the Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act (USERRA), gives returning service members the right to reclaim their prior jobs with state employers and authorizes ...

Kennedy v. Bremerton School District
Docket Number: 21-418
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: June 27, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Kennedy lost his job as a high school football coach after he knelt at midfield after games to offer a quiet personal prayer. The Ninth Circuit affirmed the summary judgment rejection of Kennedy’s claims against the school ...

Concepcion v. United States
Docket Number: 20-1650
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: June 27, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Concepcion pleaded guilty to distributing crack cocaine, 21 U.S.C. 841(a)(1), and was sentenced, in 2009, to 228 months in prison. The career offender provision and other enhancements increased Concepcion’s Sentencing Guidelines ...

Ruan v. United States
Docket Number: 20-1410
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: June 27, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Two medical doctors, licensed to prescribe controlled substances, were convicted for violating 21 U.S.C. 841, which makes it a crime, “[e]xcept as authorized[,] . . . for any person knowingly or intentionally . . . to manufacture, ...

Dobbs v. Jackson Women's Health Organization
Docket Number: 19-1392
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: June 24, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Mississippi’s Gestational Age Act provides that “[e]xcept in a medical emergency or in the case of a severe fetal abnormality, a person shall not intentionally or knowingly perform . . . or induce an abortion of an unborn ...

Becerra v. Empire Health Foundation, For Valley Hospital Medical Center
Docket Number: 20-1312
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: June 24, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Once a person turns 65 or has received federal disability benefits for 24 months, he becomes “entitled” to Medicare Part A, 42 U.S.C. 426(a)–(b) benefits. Not all patients who qualify for Medicare Part A have their ...

Vega v. Tekoh
Docket Number: 21-499
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: June 23, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Los Angeles County Deputy Vega questioned Tekoh at the medical center where Tekoh worked regarding the reported sexual assault of a patient. Vega did not inform Tekoh of his Miranda rights. Tekoh eventually provided a written ...

Nance v. Ward
Docket Number: 21-439
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: June 23, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: A prisoner who challenges a state’s proposed method of execution under the Eighth Amendment must identify a readily available alternative method that would significantly reduce the risk of severe pain. Nance brought suit ...

New York State Rifle & Pistol Association, Inc. v. Bruen
Docket Number: 20-843
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: June 23, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: The State of .New York makes it a crime to possess a firearm without a license. An individual who wants to carry a firearm outside his home may obtain an unrestricted license to “have and carry” a concealed “pistol ...

Berger v. North Carolina State Conference of the NAACP
Docket Number: 21-248
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: June 23, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: North Carolina amended its Constitution to require photographic identification for in-person voting. S.B. 824 was enacted to implement the amendment. In a federal constitutional challenge, the Board of Elections was defended ...

Marietta Memorial Hospital Employee Health Benefit Plan v. DaVita Inc.
Docket Number: 20-1641
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: June 21, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: The employer-sponsored group health plan offers all of its participants the same limited coverage for outpatient dialysis. A dialysis provider sued the plan, citing the Medicare Secondary Payer statute, which makes Medicare ...

Carson v. Makin
Docket Number: 20-1088
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: June 21, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Maine offers tuition assistance for parents who live in school districts that neither operate a secondary school nor contract with a school in another district. Parents designate the secondary school they would like their ...

United States v. Taylor
Docket Number: 20-1459
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: June 21, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Following an unsuccessful robbery during which his accomplice shot a man, Taylor was charged under the Hobbs Act, 18 U.S.C. 1951(a), and with committing a “crime of violence” under section 924(c). The Hobbs Act makes ...

United States v. Washington
Docket Number: 21-404
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: June 21, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Washington enacted a workers’ compensation law that applied only to Hanford site workers who were “engaged in the performance of work, either directly or indirectly, for the United States.” The Hanford site, once used ...

Shoop v. Twyford
Docket Number: 21-511
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: June 21, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Twyford was convicted of aggravated murder and was sentenced to death. Ohio courts affirmed his conviction and sentence, then denied post-conviction relief, rejecting Twyford’s claim that his trial counsel was ineffective ...

Viking River Cruises, Inc. v. Moriana
Docket Number: 20-1573
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: June 15, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: California’s Labor Code Private Attorneys General Act (PAGA) authorizes any “aggrieved employee” to initiate an action against a former employer on behalf of himself and other current or former employees to obtain civil ...

Golan v. Saada
Docket Number: 20-1034
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: June 15, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Golan, a U.S. citizen, married Saada, an Italian citizen, in Italy, where, in 2016, they had a son, B. In 2018, Golan flew to the United States and moved into a domestic violence shelter with B. Saada sought an order returning ...

Ysleta del Sur Pueblo v. Texas
Docket Number: 20-493
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: June 15, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: In 1968, Congress recognized the Ysleta del Sur Pueblo Indian tribe. In 1983, Texas renounced its trust responsibilities with respect to the Tribe and expressed opposition to any new federal legislation that did not permit ...

American Hospital Association v. Becerra
Docket Number: 20-1114
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: June 15, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: The formula that the Department of Health and Human Services must employ annually to set reimbursement rates for certain outpatient prescription drugs provided by hospitals to Medicare patients, 42 U.S.C. 1395l(t)(14)(A)(iii), ...

George v. McDonough
Docket Number: 21-234
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: June 15, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: George joined the Marine Corps in 1975 without disclosing his history of schizophrenic episodes. His medical examination noted no mental disorders. George suffered an episode during training. The Marines medically discharged ...

Johnson v. Arteaga-Martinez
Docket Number: 19-896
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: June 13, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Arteaga-Martinez, a citizen of Mexico, was removed and reentered the U.S. His earlier removal order was reinstated and he was detained under 8 U.S.C. 1231(a). Arteaga-Martinez applied for withholding of removal and relief ...

ZF Automotive U. S., Inc. v. Luxshare, Ltd.
Docket Number: 21-401
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: June 13, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Parties involved in arbitration proceedings abroad sought discovery in the U.S. under 28 U.S.C. 1782(a), which authorizes a district court to order the production of evidence “for use in a proceeding in a foreign or international ...

Denezpi v. United States
Docket Number: 20-7622
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: June 13, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: The Bureau of Indian Affairs filed a CFR court complaint against Denezpi, a member of the Navajo Nation, charging Denezpi with crimes alleged to have occurred within the Ute Mountain Ute Reservation: assault and battery, ...

Kemp v. United States
Docket Number: 21-5726
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: June 13, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Kemp and seven codefendants were convicted of drug and gun crimes. The Eleventh Circuit consolidated their appeals and, in November 2013, affirmed their convictions and sentences. In April 2015, Kemp moved to vacate his sentence, ...

Garland v. Gonzalez
Docket Number: 20-322
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: June 13, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: The named plaintiffs, aliens who were detained under the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), 8 U.S.C. 1231(a)(6) after reentering the United States illegally, filed a putative class action, alleging that aliens detained ...

Egbert v. Boule
Docket Number: 21-147
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: June 8, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Boule’s business, “Smuggler's Inn,” abuts the Canadian border. Boule sometimes helped federal agents identify and apprehend persons engaged in unlawful cross-border activities but also provided transportation and lodging ...

Southwest Airlines Co. v. Saxon
Docket Number: 21-309
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: June 6, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Saxon, a Southwest Airlines ramp supervisor, frequently loads and unloads cargo alongside the ramp agents. Alleging that Southwest was failing to pay proper overtime wages to ramp supervisors, Saxon brought a putative class ...

Siegel v. Fitzgerald
Docket Number: 21-441
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: June 6, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Under the Trustee Program, administrative functions previously handled by bankruptcy judges are handled by U.S. Trustees, within the Department of Justice. Six judicial districts in North Carolina and Alabama opted out of ...

Gallardo v. Marstiller
Docket Number: 20-1263
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: June 6, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Gallardo suffered catastrophic injuries resulting in permanent disability when a truck struck her as she stepped off her Florida school bus. Florida’s Medicaid agency paid $862,688.77 to cover Gallardo’s initial medical ...

Morgan v. Sundance, Inc.
Docket Number: 21-328
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: May 23, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Morgan, an hourly employee at Sundance's Taco Bell franchise, had signed an agreement to arbitrate any employment dispute. Morgan later filed a nationwide collective action asserting that Sundance had violated federal law ...

Shinn v. Martinez Ramirez
Docket Number: 20-1009
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: May 23, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: The Arizona Supreme Court affirmed each prisoner's conviction and death sentence on direct review; each was denied state postconviction relief. Rejecting their petitions for federal habeas relief under 28 U.S.C. 2254, the ...

Federal Election Commission v. Cruz
Docket Number: 21-12
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: May 16, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: During his 2018 Senate reelection campaign, Cruz loaned his campaign committee $260,000. Section 304 of the 2002 Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act restricts the use of post-election campaign contributions, 52 U.S.C. 30116(j). ...

Patel v. Garland
Docket Number: 20-979
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: May 16, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Patel, who entered the United States illegally in the 1990s, applied for adjustment of status, 8 U.S.C. 1255. Because Patel had previously checked a box on a Georgia driver’s license application falsely stating that he ...

Shurtleff v. Boston
Docket Number: 20-1800
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: May 2, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Boston’s City Hall Plaza has three flagpoles; one flies the American flag and another the state flag. The city’s flag usually flies from the third pole but groups may hold ceremonies on the plaza during which participants ...

Cummings v. Premier Rehab Keller, P.L.L.C.
Docket Number: 20-219
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: April 28, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Cummings, who is deaf and blind, sought physical therapy services from Premier, requesting an American Sign Language interpreter at her sessions. Premier declined. Cummings sought damages, alleging discrimination on the basis ...

LeDure v. Union Pacific Railroad Co.
Docket Number: 20-807
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: April 28, 2022
Cassirer v. Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection Foundation
Docket Number: 20-1566
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: April 21, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Cassirer inherited a Pissaro Impressionist painting. After the Nazis came to power in Germany, she surrendered the painting to obtain an exit visa. She and her grandson, Claude, eventually settled in the United States. The ...

United States v. Vaello Madero
Docket Number: 20-303
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: April 21, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: The U.S. Constitution’s Territory Clause states that Congress may “make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory . . . belonging to the United States.” In exercising its broad authority, Congress ...

City of Austin v. Reagan National Advertising of Austin, LLC
Docket Number: 20-1029
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: April 21, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Austin Texas specially regulates signs that advertise things that are not located on the same premises as the sign and signs that direct people to offsite locations (off-premises signs). Its sign code prohibited the construction ...

Brown v. Davenport
Docket Number: 20-826
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: April 21, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Davenport, convicted of first-degree murder following a jury trial where he sat shackled at a table with a “privacy screen,” argued that his conviction should be set aside because the Due Process Clause generally forbids ...

Boechler v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue
Docket Number: 20-1472
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: April 21, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: The IRS notified Boechler, a North Dakota law firm, of a discrepancy in its tax filings. When Boechler did not respond, the IRS assessed an “intentional disregard” penalty and notified Boechler of its intent to levy Boechler’s ...

Thompson v. Clark
Docket Number: 20-659
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: April 4, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Thompson was living with his fiancée and their newborn baby in a Brooklyn apartment. Thompson’s sister-in-law, apparently suffering from mental illness, called 911 to report that Thompson was sexually abusing the baby. ...

Badgerow v. Walters
Docket Number: 20-1143
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: March 31, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Badgerow initiated an arbitration proceeding, alleging that her employment was unlawfully terminated. After arbitrators dismissed Badgerow’s claims, she filed suit in Louisiana state court to vacate the arbitral award. ...

Houston Community College System v. Wilson
Docket Number: 20-804
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: March 24, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Wilson, a member of the Board of Trustees of the Houston Community College System, brought multiple lawsuits challenging the Board’s actions. In 2016, the Board publicly reprimanded Wilson. He continued to charge the Board ...

Ramirez v. Collier
Docket Number: 21-5592
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: March 24, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Ramirez was sentenced to death for a 2004 murder. Texas informed Ramirez of his September 2021 execution date. Ramirez requested that his pastor be present in the execution chamber. Texas amended its protocol to allow a prisoner’s ...

Wisconsin Legislature v. Wisconsin Elections Commission
Docket Number: 21A471
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: March 23, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: The 2020 census revealed that Wisconsin’s State Assembly and Senate districts were no longer equally apportioned. The Governor vetoed new maps passed by the legislature. The Wisconsin Supreme Court invited proposed maps ...

Wooden v. United States
Docket Number: 20-5279
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: March 7, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Wooden was convicted as a felon in possession of a firearm, 18 U.S.C. 922(g). The Armed Career Criminal Act (ACCA) mandates a 15-year minimum penalty for section 922(g) offenders with at least three prior convictions for ...

Federal Bureau of Investigation v. Fazaga
Docket Number: 20-828
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: March 4, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Members of Muslim communities filed a putative class action, claiming that the government subjected Muslims to illegal surveillance. The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) provides a procedure for consideration ...

United States v. Tsarnaev
Docket Number: 20-443
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: March 4, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: In 2013, brothers Dzhokhar and Tamerlan planted and detonated homemade bombs near the Boston Marathon’s finish line, killing three and wounding hundreds. The brothers fled, murdering a campus police officer, carjacking ...

Cameron v. EMW Women's Surgical Center, P. S. C.
Docket Number: 20-601
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: March 3, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Kentucky’s attorney general and its Secretary of Health and Family Services were defendants in a suit concerning House Bill 454, regulating abortion procedures. Plaintiffs agreed to dismiss the attorney general, stipulating ...

Unicolors, Inc. v. H&M Hennes & Mauritz, L. P.
Docket Number: 20-915
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: February 24, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Unicolors, the owner of fabric design copyrights, successfully sued H&M for copyright infringement, 17 U.S.C. 411(a). H&M argued that Unicolors knowingly included inaccurate information on its registration application, rendering ...

Hughes v. Northwestern University
Docket Number: 19-1401
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: January 24, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Northwestern’s defined contribution retirement plans, governed by the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA), 29 U.S.C. 1001, allowed participants to choose an individual investment mix from a menu of options selected ...

Hemphill v. New York
Docket Number: 20-637
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: January 20, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: A stray 9-millimeter bullet killed a child after a Bronx street fight. Eyewitnesses described the shooter as wearing a blue shirt or sweater. Police officers determined Gilliam was involved and that Morris was at the scene. ...

National Federation of Independent Business v. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety & Health Administration
Docket Number: 21A244
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: January 13, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: The Secretary of Labor, through OSHA, enacted a vaccine mandate, to be enforced by employers. The mandate preempted contrary state laws and covered virtually all employers with at least 100 employees, with exemptions for ...

Biden v. Missouri
Docket Number: 21A240
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: January 13, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: In November 2021, the Secretary of HHS announced that, in order to receive Medicare and Medicaid funding, participating facilities must ensure that their staff—unless exempt for medical or religious reasons or teleworking ...

Babcock v. Kijakazi
Docket Number: 20-480
Court: US Supreme Court
Date: January 13, 2022

Justia Opinion Summary: Social Security retirement benefits are calculated using a formula based on past earnings, 42 U.S.C. 415(a)(1)(A). Under the “windfall elimination” provision, benefits are reduced when a retiree receives a separate pension ...