Ketchum v. Buckley, 99 U.S. 188 (1878)
U.S. Supreme CourtKetchum v. Buckley, 99 U.S. 188 (1878)
Ketchum v. Buckley
99 U.S. 188
Where the President, at the close of hostilities, appointed a military governor of one of the states the people whereof had been in rebellion against the United States, held that such appointment did not change the general laws of the state then in force for the settlement of the estates of deceased persons, nor remove from office those who were at the time charged by law with public duties in that behalf.
In accordance with a special statute of Alabama authorizing the appointment of a general administrator and general guardian for Mobile County and for other purposes, approved Dec. 14, 1859, Wesley W. McGuire having been duly appointed to that office for the term of four years, he, March 7, 1864, made and delivered to the probate judge of the county his bond in the penal sum of $150,000, conditioned according to law, with
Ketchum and others as his sureties thereon. Letters of administration were granted to him Sept. 21, 1865, upon the estate of William Buckley, deceased, by the probate court of said county, by virtue whereof he administered upon the estate. In May, 1869, in answer to a citation served upon him at the instance of the heirs of Buckley, he made a final settlement of his administration of the estate, and decrees were entered against him for the sums due to each of them respectively. Executions were issued on the decrees, and returned "no property found." George W. Buckley, one of said heirs, thereupon brought suit in the Circuit Court of Mobile County for the sum due to him by said decree, alleging that for the devastavit of the assets of the deceased, committed by the said McGuire, he and the other defendants, his sureties, were liable on the bond.
McGuire died after the commencement of this suit. His sureties set up that, at the time of his appointment, Alabama as one of the so-called Confederate States, was at open war with the United States, but that before June 20, 1865, the Confederate government was subdued, the insurrectionary government of the state overthrown, and her entire people under martial law; that the President, in his proclamation of June 21, 1865, 13 Stat. 767, declared that the rebellion had "deprived the people of the State of Alabama of all civil government;" that he appointed Lewis E. Parsons governor and authorized him to organize civil government in the state; that Parsons, in pursuance of the proclamation and by virtue of the authority thereby conferred, called a convention of the people to be elected as therein prescribed to meet at Montgomery to inaugurate civil government in the state; that he retained in office by name all justices of the peace and certain other officers, but declared that sheriffs and judges of the probate court were only retained until others should be appointed upon application of the people of the respective counties, but he authorized them to continue to discharge the duties of their respective offices upon taking the oath of fidelity to the United States; that George W. Bond had been elected probate judge of that county in May, 1861, for the term of six years, and was in office when the insurrectionary state government was overthrown; that said Parsons appointed said Bond to the office of probate
judge; that the office of said McGuire as general administrator and general guardian had, by reason of the premises, ceased before the letters of administration were granted to him on the estate of said Buckley; that he was not named in the proclamation as one of the officers retained; that the grant of the letters to him was therefore void; and that his sureties were not liable for his administration of said estate.
The circuit court held on demurrer the defense to be insufficient to bar the suit. Judgment was rendered for the plaintiff, and it having been affirmed by the supreme court, the defendants sued out this writ of error.