Four Packages v. United States, 97 U.S. 404 (1878)
U.S. Supreme CourtFour Packages v. United States, 97 U.S. 404 (1878)
Four Packages v. United States
97 U.S. 404
1. On the arrival of the steamship Hansa at her pier or dock at Hoboken, N.J., certain packages were, without a permit or the knowledge of the customs inspectors, unladen by her officers as the baggage of steerage passengers. The customs officers, having there examined the packages and found them to contain articles subject to duty, so marked them for identification, and sent them to Castle Garden, New York City, for further examination. Upon such further examination at that place and the failure to pay the duties, the packages were sent to the seizure room at the custom house. Held that the seizure was made at Castle Garden, and not on the pier or dock at Hoboken.
2. It being fully proved that the packages were so unladen, the court below did not err in directing a verdict condemning them for a violation of the fiftieth section of the Act of March 2, 1799 (1 Stat. 665).
This was an information filed by the United States in the District Court, May 8, 1873, for the condemnation and forfeiture of four packages seized by the collector of customs for the port of New York as the property of Hugo Seitz and Carl Breidbach, composing the firm of Hugo Seitz & Co., for a violation of secs. 24, 46, and 50 of the Act of Congress approved March 2, 1799, 1 Stat. 627, entitled "An Act to regulate the collection of duties on imports and tonnage," and sec. 4 of the Act of July 18, 1866, 14 id. 178, entitled "An Act further to prevent smuggling, and for other purposes." The first count of the information alleges that on April 25, 1873, the collector of the port of New York
"seized on land the property described as four packages containing human hair and other articles, which he now has within said Southern District of New York, as forfeited to the United States,"
having been unladen and delivered from the steamship Hansa, "within said port and collection district, without a permit from the collector and naval officer for such unlading or delivery," contrary to the fiftieth section of the Act of March 2, 1799.
To maintain the issue on its part, the United States introduced evidence to show that the Hansa arrived at New York from Bremen April 23, 1873, and that the claimants came in
her as steerage passengers, and brought with them the said packages; that on her arrival she proceeded to her dock or pier at Hoboken, N.J., and commenced landing her passengers and their baggage on the dock; that two inspectors, specially detailed by the collector of customs for the port of New York for the examination of the baggage of steerage passengers, found said packages on the dock, they having been there unladen and delivered from said vessel and claimed by the claimants as their property; that Seitz and Breidbach went to Germany in March, 1873, having in contemplation the establishment, on their return, of a partnership in the business of hair dressing and the manufacture and sale of switches; that the human hair found in said packages was purchased in Germany for use in the manufacture of said switches, and that the other articles were fancy goods bought for and at the request of the father of Breidbach, who was a dealer therein in New York, and were intended to be delivered to him for sale. It was also proved that said packages were produced to the officers of the Hansa by the claimants, on engaging passage, as their baggage, and that they, with the baggage of other steerage passengers in said vessel, were put upon the dock at Hoboken by her officers without any knowledge on their part of the contents thereof; that said packages having been subsequently examined on the pier by the inspectors and found to contain dutiable articles, were so marked, in order to identify them at Castle Garden, where the proper officers were detailed for the purpose of collecting the duty, the baggage of steerage passengers being landed or delivered at that place, and the duties never being paid or collected on the pier at Hoboken; it was also proved that neither of said packages nor its contents was entered upon the manifest of the Hansa, and that no permit or document in the nature of a permit, either in terms or legal effect, for the unlading or delivery of said packages or their contents had been granted by the collector of the port of New York, and that said packages having been sent to Castle Garden, were there seized and sent to the seizure room at the custom house in the City of New York. There was also evidence tending to show that the claimants imported said merchandise with the intent to secure its landing and
delivery without paying the lawful duties thereon. The claimants thereupon offered in evidence the following papers as and for permits for the unlading and delivery of their goods:
"NEW YORK, April 19, 1873"
"The inspector on board the steamer Hansa, from Bremen, will examine the baggage of all the passengers, and if nothing be found but personal baggage, permit the same to be landed, and send all other articles not permitted, in due time, to the public store, 119 Greenwich Street and 24 Trinity Place."
"THO'S G. BAKER, Dep. Collector"
"E. MANNING, Naval Officer"
"CUSTOM HOUSE, PORT OF NEW YORK"
"COLLECTOR'S OFFICE, April 24, 1873"
"The inspector on board the German steamship Hansa, Brickenshime, master, from Bremen via Southampton, will send to the _____ public store, No. ___ Hoboken, _____ all packages, when landed, and for which no permit or order shall have been received by him contrary to this direction, except perishable articles, gunpowder, new hides, explosive substances not permitted for consumption, which you will retain on board, and send notice of to this office. The usual weighing, gauging, and measuring to be done before sending goods under this order."
"R. WYNKOOP, Dep. Collector"
The plaintiff admitted that said papers came from the official records of the office of the collector of the port of New York, but claiming that they were issued in connection with the landing of passengers and their baggage on the arrival of the Hansa, and not as the permits required by law for unlading or delivering the goods, wares, and merchandise in suit, objected to their admission in evidence. The court sustained the objection and excluded the papers, whereupon the claimants excepted. The claimants also gave evidence tending to show their innocence of any intent to secure the unlading or delivery of the goods without paying the duties thereon. They thereupon requested the court to charge the
jury to find for them on the ground that no seizure of the goods in question had been proved within the jurisdiction of the court; but the court declined so to charge, and the claimants excepted. The court thereupon directed the jury to return a verdict of condemnation of the goods, wares, and merchandise, in that the same were unladen and delivered from the Hansa without a permit, contrary to the fiftieth section of the Act of March 2, 1799. The claimants requested the court to charge the jury that the plaintiff could not recover under the fiftieth section of the act of 1799; that no law of the United States forbids steerage passengers from bringing dutiable articles to this country with their personal effects as baggage, and that there is no law for forfeiting goods so brought; that the goods in question were not landed without a permit; that, having been landed under the direction and supervision of the officers of the customs or under a baggage or general order permit, they were not forfeited under the fiftieth section of the act of 1799; that upon the facts in the case, the claimants did not land the goods; and that in the absence of fraudulent intent on their part in the importation of the goods, the government could not recover.
The court refused so to charge, and also to submit to the jury as questions of fact whether the goods had been landed without a permit in violation of said fiftieth section, or whether they were imported contrary to law.
The jury thereupon returned a verdict condemning the goods, and judgment of forfeiture was entered thereon, and that judgment having been affirmed by the circuit court, the claimants then brought the case here.