United States v. First National Bank of Detroit, 234 U.S. 245 (1914)
U.S. Supreme CourtUnited States v. First National Bank of Detroit, 234 U.S. 245 (1914)
United States v. First National Bank of Detroit, Minnesota
Nos. 873, 874, 875
Argued April 7, 1914
Decided June 8, 1914
234 U.S. 245
The natural and usual signification of plain terms is to be adopted as the legislative meaning in the absence of clear showing that something else was meant.
The rule that words in treaties with, and statutes affecting, Indians must be interpreted as the Indians understood them is not applicable where the statute is not in the nature of a contract and does not require the consent of the Indians to make it effectual.
The after facts have but little weight in determining the meaning of legislation, and cannot overcome the meaning of plain words used in a statute; nor can the courts be influenced in administering a law by the fact that its true interpretation may result in harsh consequences.
The responsibility for the justice and wisdom of legislation rests with Congress, and it is the province of the courts to enforce, not to make, the laws.
The policy of the government in enacting legislation is often an uncertain thing as to which opinions may vary, and it affords an unstable ground of statutory construction.
Congress has on several occasions put full-blood Indians in one class and all others in another class.
If a given construction was intended by Congress, which it would have been easy to have expressed in apt terms, other terms actually used will not be given a forced interpretation to reach that result.
While the early administration of a statute showing the departmental
construction thereof doe not have the same wight which a long observed departmental construction has, it is entitled to consideration as showing the construction placed upon the statute by competent men charged with its enforcement.
Courts may not supply words in a statute which Congress has omitted; nor can such course be induced by any consideration of public policy or the desire to promote justice in dealing with dependent people.
The Clapp Amendments of June 21, 1906, 34 Stat. 325, 353, and March 1, 1907, id., 1015, 1034, removing restrictions imposed by the Act of February 8, 1887, upon alienation of Chippewa allotments as to mixed bloods apply to mixed bloods of all degrees and not only to those of half or more than half white blood. Such was not the congressional intent as expressed in the statute, and this Court cannot interpret the statute except according to the import of its plain terms.
208 F. 988 affirmed.
These suits were brought by the United States in the Circuit Court of the United States for the District of Minnesota against the appellees, to set aside certain conveyances under and through which the appellees claimed title to lands, particularly described, in the White Earth Indian Reservation in Minnesota. The decree of the district court (which had succeeded the circuit court) in the first two cases in favor of the government was reversed by the Circuit Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit, while the decree dismissing the bill in the last case was affirmed (208 F. 988).
By the Treaty of March 19, 1867, 16 Stat. 719, creating the White Earth Indian Reservation, the Chippewas of the Mississippi ceded all their land in Minnesota, except certain described tracts, to the United States, and the government set apart the White Earth Reservation for their use, and provision was made for the certification to each Indian of not to exceed 160 acres of the land to such reservation in lots of forty acres each, upon the cultivation of ten acres, provided, that the land should be exempt from taxation and sale for debt, and should not be alienated
except with the approval of the Secretary of the Interior, and then only to a Chippewa Indian. The Act of February 8, 1887, 24 Stat. 388, c. 119, provided for the allotment of land in the Indian reservations in severalty to the Indians, and that (§ 5), upon the approval of the allotments, patents should issue therefor in the name of the allottees, which should be of the legal effect and declare that the United States held the land for twenty-five years, in trust for the sole use and benefit of the Indian to whom the allotment was made, or, in case of his death, of his heirs, according to the laws of the state or territory where the land was located, and that, at the expiration of that time, the United States would convey the same to the Indian or his heirs in fee, discharged of the trust, and free of all charge or encumbrance whatsoever; provided that the President of the United States might, in his discretion, extend the period, and provided that any conveyance or contract touching the lands before the expiration of the trust period should be null and void. The Nelson Act of January 14, 1889, 25 Stat. 642, c. 24, provided for the relinquishment to the United States of that part of the reservation remaining after the allotment, subject to the Act of February 8, 1887, supra, in severalty, to the Chippewa Indians in Minnesota, the act to become operative only upon the assent of a certain number of Indians being obtained. By the Act of February 28, 1891, 26 Stat. 794, c. 383, the allotments were limited to eighty acres to each Indian; but by the Steenerson Act of April 28, 1904, 33 Stat. 539, c. 1786, the maximum allotments of the White Earth Reservation were made 160 acres. The Acts of June 21, 1906, 34 Stat. 325, 353, c. 3504, and March 1, 1907, 34 Stat. 1015, 1034, c. 2285, in what is known as the Clapp Amendment, removed the restrictions upon alienation as respects mixed-blood Indians, but left the matter, so far as full-bloods were concerned, to the Secretary of the Interior.
The government relied, in the first case, upon its title
to a certain parcel of land as a part of the public domain set apart as the White Earth Reservation, and the fact that, although, under the various acts of Congress above mentioned, authority was given to segregate certain parcels of land from others in the reservation, and to allot them to members of the band, and O-bah-baum, an Indian woman of that tribe, had been given a trust patent, as provided for by the Act of February 8, 1887, supra, and had given a mortgage to the defendant in that case upon such land, she had no right or authority so to do. It prayed that the mortgage be annulled, as being a cloud upon the government's title.
The allegations of the complaints in the second and third cases are the same, except that the allottee in the former is named Bay-bah-mah-ge-wabe, and in the latter Equay-zaince, and in both cases that there are outstanding warranty deeds and mortgages, that there were intermediate parties not made parties of record, and that an accounting was asked for timber already cut, and an injunction from cutting standing timber.
The defendant in the first case, besides denying that the reservation was a part of the public domain and alleging that the property was that of the Indians, and that, after selection, the allottee acquired a fee simple title, notwithstanding the acts of Congress, particularly set up the fact that O-bah-baum is a mixed-blood Chippewa Indian, and one of the class referred to in the Clapp Amendment, and therefore emancipated from the pretended supervision of the government, and able to transfer her property as a citizen of the United States. The defendant also alleged that, under the facts, the Indians having made affidavit that they were mixed bloods and the good faith of the defendant, the government should be required to place the defendant in statu quo before the relief asked could be granted. The lumber company, defendant in the second case, and the defendants in the third case, filed
answers of similar purport, with the additional averment that, under the facts stated, the matter relating to the timber was immaterial, but, if the court found against defendants' title, they would account for the timber cut by them.
By stipulation or introduction in evidence, the following facts were made to appear:
The three Indians here involved are adult Chippewa Indians, residing upon the White Earth Reservation. O-bah-baum has some white blood, derived from a remote ancestor, but not to exceed one thirty-second; Bay-bah-mah-ge-wabe has one sixteenth of white blood, and Equay-zaince has one eighth of white blood.
A question having arisen with reference to the construction of the term "mixed blood," as used in the treaty of September 30, 1854 (10 Stat. 1109), between the United States and the Chippewa Indians of Lake Superior and the Mississippi, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, in a letter to the Indian agent at Detroit, Michigan, said that
"the term 'mixed-bloods' has been construed to mean all who are identified as having a mixture of Indian and white blood. The particular proportion of each blood is therefore immaterial, where the provision is so broad as that stated in the treaty."
The Indian agent at the White Earth Reservation, after the passage of the Clapp Amendment, came to Washington to consult the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, and was referred by him to the Land Division, and, after discussing the situation with a man represented to be in charge of such matters, it was agreed that the act did not require a showing of any definite quantum of foreign blood to constitute a mixed blood, and to his knowledge this was the construction generally adopted by those who dealt with the Indians on the White Earth Reservation. The Chief of the Land Division at the time of the passage of the Clapp Amendment testified that, to his knowledge, no question
was raised as to the quantum of foreign blood. In a communication dated October 6, 1910, to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, the Special Assistant to the Attorney General and the special Indian agent at Detroit, Minnesota, expressed the belief that the attorneys for the government were going to contend that the term "mixed blood" should be interpreted to embrace only those of half or less of Indian blood, and cited a certain act of the United States (of February 6, 1909, 35 Stat. 600, c. 80) in which the term "Indian" was defined to include the aboriginal races inhabiting Alaska when annexed to the United States, and their descendants of the whole or half blood, which act concerned the sale of liquor or firearms to an Indian or half breed. They also cited certain treaties with the Chippewas wherein it was shown that half breeds are persons of less than half blood, and not regarded as Indians or members of the Chippewa nation: Article 3 of the Treaty of July 29, 1837, 7 Stat. 536, Article 4 of the Treaty of October 4, 1842, 7 Stat. 591, Article 4 of the Treaty of August 2, 1847, 9 Stat. 904, Article 6 of the Treaty of February 22, 1855, 10 Stat. 1165, and Article 4 of the Treaty of March 19, 1867, 16 Stat. 719, from which it was summarized that in these treaties persons classed as half breeds or mixed bloods, or less than half blood, were not recognized by the government or the Chippewas as Indians entitled to the rights and privileges of Chippewa Indians unless by special provisions of treaties, as theretofore shown. The Second Assistant Commissioner, in his reply of November 19, 1910, stated that the Office was inclined to give the expressions "full bloods" and "mixed bloods" their ordinary meaning, which would be more reasonable than to hold that the term "full bloods" included those of admitted pure blood and others above the half blood. It was also said in his letter, however, that a conference would be had with the Department of Justice, and further advice given. The Commissioner of Indian Affairs
said that he had never given an official construction to the term "mixed blood."
It was stipulated that, in administering the Bureau of Indian Affairs under the Clapp Amendment, and especially in issuing patents thereunder, the Department had not required any statement as to the quantum of foreign blood, but had issued patents upon the showing that the applicant was a mixed blood. Several instances were shown by the records of allotments having been made to allottees on the White Earth Reservation having but one sixteenth or one thirty-second of Indian blood, while other instances were shown where allotment had been denied because applicant was of "doubtful blood."
A white man who had resided for a long time among the Chippewa Indians stated that, in the early period, the terms "mixed blood" and "half breed" were synonymous, applying to one of mixed white and Indian blood, irrespective of the percentage, and that later the term "mixed blood" was more commonly used, while the term "half breed" was applied to one having nearly equal parts of white and Indian blood. The general impression of businessmen in and about the White Earth Reservation was that any Indian who had white blood in his veins was a mixed blood.
Several very elderly Indians testified, however, that the Indians regarded the term "mixed blood" as applying to those having practically half white and half Indian blood.
The district court, after stating that the question was one of first impression, said that Congress intended competency to be the test, and came to the conclusion that an Indian having an admixture of one-eighth white blood might come within the term, but that, beyond that, the white blood would not affect the capacity of the Indian to manage his own affairs, and therefore dismissed the bill in the third case and entered a decree in favor of the complainants in the other two cases. The circuit court of appeals reached the conclusion that every Chippewa
Indian having an identifiable mixture of other than Indian blood, however small, is a mixed-blood Indian, and all others are full-blood Indians within the meaning of the Clapp Amendment, and accordingly reversed the decree of the district court in the first two cases and affirmed the decree in the third case.