United States v. Stage Co., 199 U.S. 414 (1905)
U.S. Supreme CourtUnited States v. Stage Co., 199 U.S. 414 (1905)
United States v. Utah, Nevada & California Stage Company
Nos. 51 and 52
Submitted November 8, 1905
Decided November 27, 1905
199 U.S. 414
In construing a contract for mail service in New York City, held that:
The new and additional mail messenger or transfer service which the contractor could be required to perform under authority of the Postmaster General without additional compensation did not include a vast amount of additional work necessitated by the opening of a new post office not contemplated by either of the parties when the contract was made.
The same principles of right and justice which prevail between individuals should control the construction and carrying out of contracts between the government and individuals.
The contractor had a right to presume the government knew how many stations were to be served, and, where the proposals positively specified that only two elevated railroad stations were to be served, the contractor was entitled to extra compensation for serving four stations, notwithstanding the proposal required the bidders to inform themselves as to facts and stated that additional compensation would not be allowed for mistakes.
The contractor was not entitled to extra compensation for "foot service," carrying mails up and down steps at elevated railroad stations, as delivery at the foot of the steps would have been insufficient.
This is an appeal and cross-appeal from a judgment of the Court of Claims upon a demand for extra compensation in the performance of a contract made on December 21, 1892, between the United States, represented by the Postmaster General, and the Utah, Nevada & California Stage Company for the rendition of certain covered regulation wagon, mail messenger, transfer, and station service on mail route number 207,003, in the City of New York, for a term from July 1, 1893, to June 30, 1897. The advertisement contained certain instructions to bidders, a part of which is as follows:
"The contractors under this advertisement will be required to perform, without additional compensation, any and all new or additional service that may be ordered from July 1, 1893, or at any time thereafter during the contract term, whether between post offices and railroad stations, between post offices and steamboat landings, between post offices and mail stations, or between the several railroad stations, steamboat landings, and mail stations now established or that may hereafter be established, whether caused by the establishment of new, or by change of site of existing, post offices, railroad stations, steamboat landings, or mail stations within said cities, or caused by the alteration of the routes made necessary by any other reason."
"The statements of probable additional service that may be necessary on the routes under this advertisement are given so that bidders may be as fully advised as possible of the amount likely to be required. It will not, however, limit the
liability of the contractors to perform all service that may become necessary without additional pay."
"Bidders must inform themselves of the distances, the running time, the weight of the mails, the condition of hills, streets, toll bridges, ferries, and obstructions of all kinds whereby expense may be incurred, and as to the probable increase, additional service, or changes likely to be rendered necessary. Claims for additional pay based on such grounds, or for alleged mistakes or misapprehensions as to the service required, or for bridges destroyed or ferries discontinued cannot be considered."
The stage company, having submitted a proposal under this advertisement, was awarded the contract, and the same was duly entered into. Among other things, it was stipulated:
"To take the mail from and deliver it into the post offices, mail stations, and cars at such points and at such hours, under the directions of the postmaster at New York, N.Y., approved by the Postmaster General, as will secure dispatches and connections and facilitate distribution, and at the contractor's expense for tolls and ferriage."
"To perform all new or additional or changed covered regulation wagon, mail messenger, transfer, and mail station service that the Postmaster General may order at the City of New York, N.Y., during the contract term, without additional compensation, whether caused by change of location of post office, stations, landing, or the establishment of others than those existing at the date hereof, or rendered necessary, in the judgment of the Postmaster General, for any cause, and to furnish such advance or extra wagons from time to time for special or advance trips as the Postmaster General may require, as a part of such new or additional service."
After the contract was entered into, Congress having made an appropriation for the purpose, a new distribution station was established at Forty-fourth Street and Lexington Avenue, in the City of New York, known as the Industrial Building Station. At the time of the advertisement for proposals
which resulted in the contract, to-wit, on September 15, 1892, the service therein referred to involved the carrying of the mails for approximately 973,674.22 miles per annum. In the advertisement, bidders were notified that the probable annual increase in such service would amount to 6,718.40 miles. Between the time of the advertisement and the time when complainant entered upon the performance of his contract, additional service was required which increased the amount of annual mileage to 1,012,604.54 miles. On August 22, 1893, an order was made by the Second Assistant Postmaster General requiring additional mail service to supply the mail station at Forty-fourth Street and Lexington Avenue as per certain statements attached to the order, and a further order was made on October 23, 1893, for additional mail station service. Under the arrangement ordered by the Department, all first-class matter (letters) previously collected in the district of Station H (removed into the Industrial Building from 156 East Fourth street) continued to be received and handled there; massed matter made up by the states for the East, North, and West, which had previously been sent to the general post office for distribution, was sent to the Industrial branch to be distributed. South and West mail was taken there during the period within suit and assorted, and all of the second-class bulky matter of publishers above Fourteenth Street, which had formerly been received at the general post office and Station O, was delivered at the Industrial Building; also, all third and fourth class matter, mailed in uptown stations, which had previously come to the general post office, was sent to the Industrial Building, relieving the general post office from handling that matter. The result of the orders aforesaid was that claimant was compelled to increase the number of wagon trips from October 25, 1893, to February 6, 1895, over and above what would have been the normal increase, and increased the distance to be traveled by the wagons, over and above the normal increase, 311,939 miles for the period from October 5, 1893, to February 6, 1895.
The Industrial Building was rented in March, 1893, for postal purposes in order to relieve the general post office, which had become inadequate to accommodate the increased volume of business. Station H, on May 1, 1893, was moved from 156 East Fifty-fourth Street into the Industrial Building. In connection with Station H, there were inaugurated in the premises the district departments, variously known as district stations.
By establishing the distribution station in the Industrial Building and issuing the orders above set forth, there was no diminution in the number and character of the runs to and from the general post office, nor was the mileage at said general post office thereby diminished. To perform this extra service to and from the Industrial Building, the claimant was required to purchase from 80 to 100 additional horses, and from 32 to 33 additional wagons; to put on from 45 to 46 new runs, and to employ from 33 to 50 additional men -- drivers, hostlers, etc. The orders resulted in such increased speed in carrying the mails from the Industrial Building to some of the railroad stations that, in obeying them, it was necessary to violate the city ordinances as to the rate of speed; it largely increased the wear and tear on the wagons; it injured and shortened the period of usefulness of the horses, some of them dying from overexertion in hot weather by reason of the fast driving made necessary by the short time allowed to make the various trips.
The increase of runs to the railroad stations outside of the City of New York made necessary by the establishment of the extra service from the Industrial Building increased the necessary expenditure by the claimant, in the matter of ferry tolls, in the sum of $9,950.22.
At no time prior to the making of said bid or prior to entering into said contract was any intimation or information given by the defendants' officers to claimant that they contemplated or intended the establishment of a service at the Industrial Building.
A postal station was established in the Industrial Building, and the contractor was required to transport the mails between it and the various railroad stations and some postal stations. This postal station was constituted as follows:
"Station H was moved May 1, 1893, from its location at No. 156 East Fifty-fourth Street into the above-named premises."
"Thereafter, on September 1, 1893 (service began October 4, 1893), there was inaugurated in the same premises and in connection with Station H the distribution department, which was variously known as 'Distribution Station,' 'Industrial Station,' and 'Station H (distribution department),' and the two together were sometimes known as 'Industrial Branch station.'"
"Before and after the removal of Station H, as above stated, it was in all respects a branch post office at which there were collections and deliveries of mail by carriers, distribution of mail matter for dispatch, registration of letters, sale of stamps, and the issuing of money orders."
"Both that part of the industrial branch which had been known as Station H, and that part which was referred to as 'Distribution Station,' etc., were situated on the same floor of the Industrial Building, and were at all times connected by a passageway. The former was in charge of a superintendent of station, and the latter was, until January 5, 1895, under the direction of an assistant of the superintendent of mails of the general post office. Station H continued the collection and delivery of mail by carriers, the sale of stamps, the registration of matter, and sale of money orders, while the distribution department had charge of the distribution of second, third, and fourth class matter. The collectors for Station H proper carried their collections of mail directly into and deposited them in the distribution department, and the distribution for dispatch and the assortment for city delivery were made there."
"After the equipment of Industrial Branch Station, second-class mail matter mailed by publishers and originating north of Fourteenth Street was mailed at that station. "
"This mail matter had previously been mailed at the general post office and at Station O at which points the distribution had theretofore been made and dispatch made to the several railroad stations, as specifically stated in the advertisement. Thereafter no further such mailing of second class matter was made at Station O, and all dispatches of said mailed matter for the West and New England states and to and from Grand Central station were made from the Industrial Branch Station, a distance of approximately six blocks, instead of from the general post office, 3 1/2 miles distant, and from Station O, 1 3/4 miles distant, as theretofore."
"The congested state of the general post office on account of lack of adequate space, for the remedy of which Station O had been established some years before, was well known for some time prior to the advertisement and proposal for this service."
The advertisement of September 15, 1892, containing provision for covered regulation wagon, mail messenger, transfer, and station service, which was made a part of the contract, undertook to give a schedule of service probably required in the city as the same existed and was in operation on August 15, 1892, as stated in the advertisement, "so that bidders might be as fully advised as possible of the amount of service likely to be required." The advertisement inadvertently stated the service between the Manhattan Elevated Railroad station and the general post office and certain branch stations at one-half of the number of transfers actually required, consequently the stage company was required to perform, and did perform, double the number of trips specified.
In the performance of the contract, certain foot service was required, which, it is contended, was not included in the contract, which necessitated 479,875 trips going up and down steps in making delivery of mail to messengers on elevated trains, the service requiring the employment of additional men at each station.
From the findings of fact, the Court of Claims held the complainant
entitled to recover the sum of $68,483 as compensation for the additional service under the orders of the department made necessary by the establishment of the extra service in connection with the Industrial Building, the sum including $9,950.22 expenses incurred by the stage company in the matter of ferry tolls; also $14,538 because of the double service required between the Manhattan Elevated Railroad and the general post office and certain branch post offices, growing out of the mistake in the advertisement in stating the number of trips required at one-half the actual number. It disallowed the claim for extra compensation on account of the "foot service" required in delivering the mail upstairs at the elevated railway stations. 39 Ct.Cl. 420, 440.