United States v. McDougall's Administrator, 121 U.S. 89 (1887)
U.S. Supreme CourtUnited States v. McDougall's Administrator, 121 U.S. 89 (1887)
United States v. McDougall's Administrator
Submitted January 7, 1887
Decided March 28, 1887
121 U.S. 89
The fact that Congress, by several special acts, has made provision for the payment of several claims, part of a class of claims upon which the respective claimants could not have recovered in an action in the Court of Claims in the exercise of its general jurisdiction, furnishes no reason for holding the United States liable in an action in that court for the recovery of such a claim which Congress has made no provision for. The fact that the Court of Claims has rendered judgment against the United States at various times upon claims of a particular class, from which judgments the Executive Department of the government took no appeal, furnishes no reason why judgment should be given against the
United States in an action in the Court of Claims on another claim of the class if the United states are not otherwise liable therefor.
No statute of the United States, either in express terms or by implication, authorized the Executive, in holding treaties with the Indians, to make contracts of the character sued on in this action.
No officer of the government is authorized to so bind the United States by contracts for the subsistence of Indians not based upon appropriations made by Congress that a judgment may be given against them in the Court of Claims in the exercise of its general jurisdiction, and this rule is not affected by the fact that the United States were greatly benefited by the contracts.
No opinion is expressed upon the point whether a claim presented to an Executive Department, after the expiration of the period within which it would have been cognizable by the Court of Claims (had suit been brought thereon without first filing it in the Department), and by the Department referred to the Court of Claims under the provisions of Rev.Stat. § 1063, is barred by the statute regulating the limitation of suits in that court.
This was an appeal from a judgment rendered by the Court of Claims against the United States in favor of the appellee as administrator of the estate of George McDougall, deceased. The Court of Claims made the following finding of facts:
"I. This claim has been pending in the Interior Department and before Congress for many years, but has never been finally disposed of."
"II. Under the Act of September 28, 1850, 9 Stat. 519, Redick McKee, George W. Barbour, and Oliver m., Wozencraft were duly appointed agents for the Indian tribes within the State of California. On October 9, 1850, Oliver M. Wozencraft, George W. Barbour, and Redick McKee were appointed commissioners 'to hold treaties with the various Indian tribes in the State of California,' as authorized by the Act of 3Oth September, 1850. Upon the passage of the Act of February 27, 1851, 9 Stat. 586, they were informed that their offices and functions as commissioners were abrogated and annulled. They were at the same time directed not to suspend negotiations, but to enter upon their appointments as agents, and were as such designated under the act of 1851 to negotiate with the Indians of California, under the instructions already given."
"The instructions referred to did not extend to and embrace
contracts for the subsistence of the Indian tribes, but only authorized such commissioners to hold treaties with such Indians."
"III. Among the instructions given the said commissioners under date of October 15, 1850, were the following:"
" As set forth in the law creating the commission, and the letter of the Secretary of the Interior, the object of the government is to obtain all the information it can with reference to tribes of Indians within the boundaries of California, their manners, habits, customs, and extent of civilization, and to make such treaties and compacts with them as may seem just and proper."
" On the arrival of Mr. McKee and Mr. Barbour in California, they will notify Mr. Wozencraft of their readiness to enter upon the duties of the mission. The board will convene, and after obtaining whatever light may be within its reach, will determine upon some rule of action most efficient in attaining the desired object, which is by all possible means to conciliate the good feelings of the Indians and to get them to ratify those feelings by entering into written treaties, binding on them, towards the government and each other. You will be able to judge whether it is best for you to act in a body or separately in different parts of the Indian country."
"Again , on May 9, 1851, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs wrote to the commissioners, using the following words:"
" What particular negotiations may be required it is impossible for this office to foresee; nor can it give any specific directions on the subject. Much must be left to the discretion of those to whom the business is immediately entrusted."
"IV. When the commissioners arrived in California, they found open hostilities existing between the Indians and the whites, and a general war had been agreed upon by the Indians. The Governor of California had, at the request of Adam Johnston, the Indian agent, called out a portion of the militia of the state and had organized a military force to operate against the Indians. To avoid the threatened, and quell the actual, hostilities, the commissioners at once began
to negotiate treaties with the Indians by which they were required to leave their mountain resorts, to abandon their lands to the whites, to descend to the plains, and reside peaceably upon a tract of land selected for them. In return, the commissioners promised the Indians that the United States would give them seeds to plant and implements to work with, establish schools, and appoint persons to teach them how to cultivate their lands and provide for their own wants."
"V. The policy adopted by the commissioners included the 'subsistence' of the Indians, and large quantities of beef and other provisions were stipulated for in the various treaties, and the office was notified that the same policy would have to be pursued throughout the whole state, and that this system was thought much better than the system of annuities. The letters in which these statements were made were written on May 1, 1851, and May 13, 1851."
"On June 27, 1851, the Indian Office wrote to the commissioners suggesting to them"
"that when the appropriation of $25,000 for holding treaties was exhausted, they should close their negotiations and proceed with the discharge of their duties as agents simply, as the Department could not feel itself justified in authorizing anticipated expenditures beyond the amount of the appropriation made by Congress."
"On the 16th July, 1851, the office wrote to Barbour, one of the commissioners, saying:"
" In the copies of treaties made with the several Indian tribes heretofore transmitted to this office, there are provisions for delivering them sundry articles in 1851 which cannot be complied with, as Congress will not be in session in time to make the necessary appropriations. Should you conclude other treaties, you will fix the time and payments, under any stipulation, at a period sufficiently in the future to allow of Congressional action to meet the requisitions,"
"and on the 9th July, 1851, the office wrote to Wozencraft, speaking of the 'treaties you have concluded or may hereafter negotiate' and directing him to transmit in every case the estimate of money that will be required, &c. On August 9, 1851, after the Indian Office had notified the commissioners that the 'appropriation for holding treaties,' was exhausted,
the commissioner wrote to Redick McKee acknowledging the receipt of the joint letter of the commissioners in which they stated that the policy of furnishing 'subsistence must be pursued throughout the whole state,' and in this letter of acknowledgment he made no complaint and gave no advice or instruction to the contrary. And on September 15, 1851, he wrote to Wozencraft acknowledging copies of treaties 'and return of expenditures, contracts, and disbursements.'"
"On May 17, 1852, the Indian Office wrote Agents WcKee and Wozencraft saying:"
"I have therefore to request that at the earliest practicable period, you make a full and detailed report directly to this office of all contracts, debts, and liabilities made and incurred by the agents of the Department in California."
"Agent Wozencraft negotiated over one hundred treaties."
"No disapproval or complaint of the actions of the commissioners, agents, or sub-agents who were connected with the foregoing transactions, either by the President, Secretary of the Interior, or Commissioner of Indian Affairs, appears."
"The agent, Wozencraft, without specific instructions so to do, made and entered into the following articles of agreement with the late George McDougall, who died May 14, 1872, and whose administrator now brings this suit:"
"Articles of agreement entered into this fifth day of April, A.D. eighteen hundred and fifty-two, between O. M. Wozencraft, United States Indian agent for California, of the first part, and George McDougall of San Francisco, of the second part."
" The said party of the first part agrees to contract with the party of the second part for two thousand and five hundred head of cattle, to be delivered as follows, viz., one thousand head to be delivered to Stephen Hutchinson, United States Indian trader, resident at San Gorgonia, for the Cohaulla tribe of Indians, five hundred head to be delivered to J. T. Ruckle, United States Indian trader, resident at Tamacula, and one thousand head to be delivered to the Indians at Aqua Callienti, near Womer's Ranche. "
" In consideration for which, the party of the first part is to pay the party of the second part at the rate of twelve and one-half (12 1/2) cents per pound (weight net), the weight to be estimated and agreed upon between the United States Indian traders and the party of the second part."
" It is further understood that if there should be no appropriation by Congress this present session for the payment of this contract, then the parties of the second part are to receive fifteen and one-half cents per pound."
" It is also further understood that one-half of the cattle contracted for may be 'torones,' at the option of the party of the second part, and it is further understood the cattle are to average five hundred pounds in weight each, if not, the weight to be made up by additional cattle, so that the original estimate may be complete."
" It is further understood that the delivery of the cattle is to commence on the first of May next ensuing."
" San Francisco, April 5, 1852."
"O. M. WOZENCRAFT [Seal]"
"GEORGE McDOUGALL [Seal]"
" J. T. RUCKLE"
"VII. In pursuance of this contract, this decedent delivered to J. S. Buckle and Stephen Hutchinson, United States Indian traders, one thousand head of cattle averaging 650 pounds each, and took from them the following receipt:"
"LOS ANGELES, May 17, 1852"
" Received of George McDougall, the contracting party for supplying the 'Cow-we-ha,' 'San Louis,' and 'Dieganian' tribes of Indians with beef cattle, one thousand head of cattle, averaging six hundred and fifty pounds weight each."
"J. S. BUCKLE"
"United States Indian Trader for the"
"'San Louis' Indians and 'Dieganians'"
"United States Indian Trader for the"
"'Cow-we-has' Tribe of Indians"
"The parties to whom the property was delivered were those nominated in the contract, and were licensed United States Indian traders, and the weight of the beef was agreed upon by the parties designated by the contracting parties, viz., McDougall and Ruckle & Hutchinson. It was customary at this time to estimate the weight of cattle, and not to sell them by actual weight."
"The price for beef at that time is shown to have been frequently as high as twenty cents per pound, by wholesale."
"VIII. Claims similar to the one at bar have been paid by the United States government as follows: John C. Fremont, 10 Stat. 804, $183,025, with interest at ten per centum per annum from June 1, 1851; Samuel J. Hensley, 12 Stat. 847, $96,576 ; Samuel Norris, $69,900, 2 Ct.Cl. 155; Fremont's case, $13,333.33, 2 Ct.Cl. 461; Fremont & Roache's case, 4 Ct.Cl. 252, $46,666; Belt's case, 15 Ct.Cls. 92, $10,715.19."
"The drafts upon which Samuel Hensley recovered were drawn by Wozencraft upon the Secretary of the Interior, and were dated February 11, 1852, and the agreement under which the said drafts were drawn was dated February 10, 1852. The contract with Samuel Norris was made by same party on December 31, 1851. The contracts upon which Belt & Co. recovered were entered into between Belt and Subagent Johnston at various times from August 5, 1851, to January 31, 1852, and on August 12, 1851, the Interior Department approved 'of the motive which prompted him (Agent Johnston) to furnish additional subsistence to the Indians,' and informed him that an appropriation would be made."
"Wozencraft reported the amount of the government's indebtedness to McDougall as amounting to $101,500."
"IX. The Indians who were dispossessed of their lands under these treaty stipulations ceased their warfare and ever after remained peaceable, but never recovered possession of their lands, although the treaties were not ratified by the Senate, but the United States assumed title to said lands and disposed of them in the same manner as other portions of the public domain have been disposed of. "