Thomas v. Railroad Company, 101 U.S. 71 (1879)
U.S. Supreme CourtThomas v. Railroad Company, 101 U.S. 71 (1879)
Thomas v. Railroad Company
101 U.S. 71
1. The powers of a corporation organized under a legislative charter are only such as the statute confers, and the enumeration of them implies the exclusion of all others.
2. A lease by a railroad company of all its road, rolling stock, and franchises for which no authority is given in its charter is ultra vires and void.
3. The ordinary clause in the charter authorizing such a company to contract with other transportation companies for the mutual transfer of goods and passengers over each other's roads confers no authority to lease its road and franchises.
4. The franchises and powers of such a company are in a large measure designed to be exercised for the public good, and this exercise of them is the consideration for granting them. A contract by which the company renders itself incapable of performing its duties to the public or attempts to absolve itself from its obligation without the consent of the state violates its charter and is forbidden by public policy. It is therefore void.
5. The fact that the legislature, after such a lease was made, passes a statute forbidding the directors of the company, its lessees or agents, from collecting more than a fixed amount of compensation for carrying passengers and freight is not a ratification of the lease or an acknowledgment of its validity.
6. Where a lease of this kind for twenty years was made, and the lessors resumed possession at the end of five years, and the accounts for that period were adjusted and paid, a condition in the lease to pay the value of the unexpired term is void, the case not coming within the principle that executed contracts originally ultra vires shall stand good fur the protection of rights acquired under a completed transaction.
This was an action of covenant by George W. Thomas, Alfred S. Porter, and Nathaniel F. Chew, against the West Jersey Railroad Company, and they, to maintain the issue on their part, offered to prove the following facts:
On the eighth day of October, 1863, the Millville and Glassboro Railroad Company, a corporation incorporated by the Legislature of New Jersey, March 9, 1859, entered into an agreement with them whereby it was stipulated that the company should, and did thereby, lease its road, buildings, and rolling stock to them for twenty years from the 1st of August, 1863, for the consideration of one-half of the gross sum collected from the operation of the road by the plaintiffs during that period; that the company might at any time terminate the contract and retake possession of the railroad, and that in such case, if the plaintiffs so desired, the company would appoint an arbitrator, who, with one appointed by them, should decide upon the value of the contract to them, and the loss and damage incurred by, and justly and equitably due to them by reason of such termination thereof; that in the event of a difference of opinion between the arbitrators, they were to choose a third, and the decision of a majority was to be final, conclusive, and binding upon the parties.
On the 10th of April, 1867, the Legislature of New Jersey passed an act entitled "A supplement to the act entitled An Act to incorporate the Millville and Glassboro Railroad Company.'" It was therein enacted that it should be unlawful for the directors, lessees, or agents of said railroad to charge more than the sums therein named for passengers and freight, respectively. The plaintiffs claim that at the date of the passage of this act, it was well known that they were acting under the said agreement of 8th October, 1863.
On the 12th of October, 1867, articles of agreement were entered into between the Millville and Glassboro Railroad Company and the West Jersey Railroad Company, the defendant, whereby it was agreed that the former should be merged into and consolidated with the latter.
In November, 1867, a written notice was served by the Millville
and Glassboro Railroad Company upon the plaintiffs putting an end to the contract and to all the rights thereby granted and notifying them that the company would retake possession of the railroad on the first day of April, 1868.
On the 18th of March, 1868, the Legislature of New Jersey passed an act whereby it was enacted that upon the fulfillment of certain preliminaries, the Millville and Glassboro Railroad Company should be consolidated with the West Jersey Railroad Company, "subject to all the debts, liabilities, and obligations of both of said companies." The conditions required by that act were fulfilled, and the railroad was duly delivered by the plaintiffs to the West Jersey Railroad Company on the 1st of April, 1868.
On April 13, 1868, and again on May 22 of the same year, notices to arbitrate according to the terms of the agreement were served by the plaintiffs upon the Millville and Glassboro Railroad Company, and immediately thereafter upon the West Jersey Railroad Company. The latter company refused to comply with the terms of either notice, but subsequently, on the 21st of December, 1868, an agreement of submission was entered into between the plaintiffs and the latter company, whereby H. F. Kenney and Matthew Baird were appointed arbitrators, with power to choose a third, to settle the controversy between the parties. These arbitrators, disagreeing, called in a third, who joined with said Baird in an award, by which the value of the unexpired term of the lease, and the loss sustained by reason of the termination thereof to and by the plaintiffs, was adjudged to be the sum of $159,437.07, and the West Jersey Railroad Company was ordered to pay that sum to the plaintiffs. This award was subsequently set aside in a suit in equity brought in New Jersey.
The plaintiffs further offered to prove their compliance in all respects with the terms of the lease, its value, and the loss and damage they had sustained by reason of its termination as aforesaid. The court excluded the offered testimony on the ground that the lease by the Millville and Glassboro Railroad Company to the plaintiffs was ultra vires, and directed the jury to return a verdict for the defendant. The plaintiffs duly excepted and sued out this writ.
They assign for error that the court below erred --
1. In excluding from the consideration of the jury the offered evidence of the said agreement between the Millville and Glassboro Railroad Company and the plaintiffs; of the acts of assembly of New Jersey, one an act to incorporate the Millville and Glassboro Railroad Company, approved the 9th of March, 1859, and another an act entitled "A supplement to the act entitled An Act to incorporate the Millville and Glassboro Railroad Company,' passed the tenth day of April, 1867," and the acts referred to therein; of the fact that it was well known at the date of the last-named act that the plaintiffs were lessees acting under the said contract and agreement, and of all the other acts of the Legislature of the State of New Jersey relating to the West Jersey Railroad Company, and to the Millville and Glassboro Railroad Company.
2. In directing the jury that their verdict must be for the defendant.
3. In entering judgment upon the verdict for the defendant.