Manufacturing Company v. United States, 84 U.S. 592 (1873)
U.S. Supreme CourtManufacturing Company v. United States, 84 U.S. 17 Wall. 592 592 (1873)
Manufacturing Company v. United States
84 U.S. (17 Wall.) 592
Where a manufacturer of guns agrees with the government to make and deliver, and the government agrees to receive and pay for, all the carbines of a certain kind (described) not exceeding six thousand, which the manufacturer can make within six months from the date of the contract, and the government afterwards requests that certain alterations may be made in the weapon, to effect which necessarily requires some months, and the alterations (along with others of the manufacturer's own suggestion, which were judicious and materially improved the weapon) were made, the request of the government to make the alterations implies such a reasonable extension of the time as is requisite to make them, and if the government was aware of the progress of the work, and gave no notice that it would refuse to accept the same if not delivered within the six months originally specified, it must be held to be bound by the reasonable intendment above mentioned; and if after the request to make the alterations, the manufacturer proceeded in good faith and without unnecessary delay, the government was bound to accept the six thousand carbines though not delivered within the six months, and having refused so to accept, is bound to pay such damages as the manufacturer has sustained by the government's said refusal.
The Amoskeag Manufacturing Company brought suit in the Court of Claims against the United States on a contract, by which the company had agreed to make and deliver, and the United States had agreed to receive and pay for, all the Lindner carbines, not exceeding six thousand, which the company could make in six months from the 15th day of April, 1863, to be approved and inspected by Major Hagner, and by which for each carbine so inspected and delivered the United States was to pay $20.
Immediately after making this contract, the company entered upon the preparations necessary to the performance of the work, and it was found as a fact by the Court of Claims that the company had the necessary means and facilities, and could have delivered the six thousand carbines of the kind contracted for within the six months limited, in conformity with the agreement as first made, had not changes and alterations been desired and requested by the government.
In regard to these changes, the court found that General Ripley, chief of ordnance, by letter of the date of April 23, 1863, requested certain alterations to be made in the construction of the carbine; that these were made by the contractors as requested, and that these necessitated other changes to make the parts conform, and also alterations in the machinery, and new tools and fixtures to perform the work. Other changes were made in the construction of the weapon by the contractors, on their own motion, which were important and judicious and which materially improved it. How much time these changes required did not precisely appear, but it was admitted that they necessarily required two or three months, a part of which resulted from the action of the department, and that the contractors proceeded in good faith and without unnecessary delay.
It was further found that, on or about the 5th of April, 1864, the company exhibited one of the weapons for inspection and gave notice to the department that the company was then ready to commence delivery, and would deliver the entire six thousand as rapidly as the government could inspect them, and asked that they should be then inspected and received by the department, which was not done then and had not since been done. It was further found that inspection of contract arms was always made at the place of manufacture, and was made of the parts of the arm before they were put together. It was also found that the time consumed by the company in filling the contract beyond the time fixed by its terms, to-wit, six months, was rendered necessary and indispensable by the changes, alterations, and delays caused solely by and for the interest of the government, and further that the government was aware of the progress of the work, and gave no notice that it should refuse to accept the work if not delivered within the six months. The arms were inspected by a competent person and found to be according to contract, and were packed in cases and tendered to the government, which refused to receive or pay for them.
The six thousand carbines were still at the time of this
suit, brought March 15, 1870, in the hands of the company, not having been offered for sale, and on the 21st of March, 1871, when the Court of Claims gave its judgment, were worth, according to the finding of the court, $3 each. Their value or market price at any previous time was not found. The Court of Claims (by an equally divided court) dismissed the petition, and the manufacturing company appealed.