Barnard v. Kellogg, 77 U.S. 383 (1869)
U.S. Supreme CourtBarnard v. Kellogg, 77 U.S. 10 Wall. 383 383 (1869)
Barnard v. Kellogg
77 U.S. (10 Wall.) 383
A wool broker in Boston sent to a dealer in wool at Hartford samples of foreign wool in bales which he had for sale, on commission, with the prices, and the latter offered to purchase the different lots at the prices if equal to the samples furnished. The wool broker accepted the offer, provided the wool dealer in Hartford would come to Boston and examine the wool on a day named, and then report if he would take it. The wool dealer went to Boston, and after examining certain of the bales as fully as he desired and being offered an opportunity to examine all the remaining bales and to have them opened for his inspection (which
offer he declined) purchased. The wool proved, the vendor knowing nothing of it, to have been deceitfully packed, rotten and damaged wool and tags being concealed by an outer covering of fleeces in their ordinary state. On action brought to recover damages, held:
1. That the sale was not one by sample, and there having been no express warranty that the bales not examined should correspond with those which were, nor any circumstances from which the law could imply such a warranty, that the rule of caveat emptor applied.
2. That proof could not be received to control the said rule, that by the custom of merchants and dealers in wool in bales at Boston and New York, the two principal markets of the country for foreign wool, there is an implied warranty of the seller to the purchaser that the same is not falsely or deceitfully packed; especially where the parties did not know of the custom.
3. The office of a custom or usage in trade is to ascertain and explain the meaning and intention of the parties to a contract, whether written or in parol, which could not be done without the aid of this extrinsic evidence. It does not go beyond this, and is used as a mode of interpretation on the theory that the parties knew of its existence and contracted with reference to it.
In the summer of 1864, Barnard, a commission merchant residing in Boston, Massachusetts, placed a lot of foreign wool, received from a shipper in Buenos Ayres, and on which he had made advances, in the hands of Bond & Co., wool brokers in Boston, to sell, with instructions not to sell unless the purchaser came to Boston and examined the wool for himself. These brokers sent to E. N. Kellogg & Co., merchants and dealers in wool, in Hartford, Connecticut, at their request, samples of the different lots of wool, and communicated the prices at which each lot could be obtained. Kellogg & Co., in reply, offered to take the wool, all round, at fifty cents a pound, if equal to the samples furnished, and Bond & Co., for their principal, on Saturday, the 6th day of August, by letter and telegram, accepted this offer, provided Kellogg & Co. examined the wool on the succeeding Monday and reported on that day whether or not they would take it. Kellogg & Co. acceded to this condition, and the senior member of the firm repaired to Boston on the day
named and examined four bales in the broker's office as fully as he desired, and was offered an opportunity to examine all the bales, and have them opened for his inspection. This he declined to do, and concluded the purchase on the joint account of all the plaintiffs. Some months after this, on opening the bales it was ascertained that a portion of them were falsely and deceitfully packed, by placing in the interior rotten and damaged wool and tags, which were concealed by an outer covering of fleeces in their ordinary state. This condition of things had been unknown to Barnard, who had acted in good faith. It was, however, communicated to him, and he was asked to indemnify the purchaser against the loss he sustained in consequence of it. This he declined to do, and the purchaser brought this suit. The declaration counted:
1st. Upon a sale by sample.
2d. Upon a promise, express or implied, that the bales should not be falsely packed.
3d. Upon a promise, express or implied, that the wool inside of the bales should not differ from the samples by reason of false packing.
The court below, trying the cause without the intervention of a jury, held that there was no express warranty that the bales not examined should correspond to those exhibited at the brokers' store, and that the law under the circumstances could not imply any. But the court found as matters of fact, that the examination of the interior of the bulk of bales of wool generally, put up like these, is not customary in the trade, and though possible, would be very inconvenient, attended with great labor and delay, and for these reasons was impracticable, and that by the custom of merchants and dealers in foreign wool in bales in Boston and New York, the principal markets of this country where such wool is sold, there is an implied warranty of the seller to the purchaser that the same is not falsely or deceitfully packed, and the court held as a matter of law, that the custom was valid and binding on the parties to this contract, and gave judgment for the purchaser.
This writ of error was taken to test the correctness of this ruling.