Celotex Corp. v. Edwards,
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514 U.S. 300 (1995)
- Syllabus |
OCTOBER TERM, 1994
CELOTEX CORP. v. EDWARDS ET ux.
CERTIORARI TO THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE FIFTH CIRCUIT
No. 93-1504. Argued December 6, 1994-Decided April 19, 1995
The United States District Court for the Northern District of Texas entered a judgment in favor of respondents and against petitioner Celotex Corp. To stay execution of the judgment pending appeal, petitioner posted a supersedeas bond, with an insurance company (Northbrook) serving as surety. After the Fifth Circuit affirmed the judgment, Celotex filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in the Bankruptcy Court for the Middle District of Florida. Exercising its equitable powers under 11 U. S. C. § 105(a), the Bankruptcy Court issued an injunction, which, in pertinent part, prohibited judgment creditors from proceeding against sureties without the Bankruptcy Court's permission. Respondents thereafter filed a motion pursuant to Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 65.1 in the Northern District of Texas seeking permission to execute against Northbrook on the bond. The District Court granted the motion. The Fifth Circuit affirmed and later denied Celotex's petition for rehearing, rejecting the argument that its decision allowed a collateral attack on the Bankruptcy Court order.
Held: Respondents must obey the Bankruptcy Court's injunction. The well-established rule that "persons subject to an injunctive order issued by a court with jurisdiction are expected to obey that decree until it is modified or reversed, even if they have proper grounds to object to the order," GTE Sylvania, Inc. v. Consumers Union of United States, Inc., 445 U. S. 375, 386, applies to bankruptcy cases, Oriel v. Russell, 278 U. S. 358. A bankruptcy court has jurisdiction over proceedings "arising under," "arising in," or "related to" a Chapter 11 case. 28 U. S. C. §§ 1334(b) and 157(a). The "related to" language must be read to grant jurisdiction over more than simply proceedings involving the debtor's property or the estate. Respondents' immediate execution on the bond is at least a question "related to" Celotex's bankruptcy. While the proceeding against Northbrook does not directly involve Celotex, the Bankruptcy Court found that allowing respondents and other bonded judgment creditors to execute immediately on the bonds would have a direct and substantial adverse effect on Celotex's ability to undergo a successful Chapter 11 reorganization. The fact that Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 65.1 provides an expedited procedure for executing on supersedeas bonds does not mean that such a procedure cannot be stayed by a law-
fully entered injunction. Board of Governors, FRS v. MCorp Financial, Inc., 502 U. S. 32, distinguished. The issue whether the Bankruptcy Court properly issued the injunction need not be addressed here. Since it is for the court of first instance to determine the question of the validity of the law, and since its orders are to be respected until its decision is reversed, respondents should have challenged the injunction in the Bankruptcy Court rather than collaterally attacking the injunction in the Texas federal courts. Pp. 306-313.
6 F.3d 312, reversed.
REHNQUIST, C. J., delivered the opinion of the Court, in which O'CONNOR, SCALIA, KENNEDY, SOUTER, THOMAS, and BREYER, JJ., joined. STEVENS, J., filed a dissenting opinion, in which GINSBURG, J., joined, post, p. 313.
Jeffrey W Warren argued the cause for petitioner. With him on the briefs were John R. Bush, Christine M. Polans, Baldo M. Carnecchia, Jr., Stephen A. Madva, and Howard
Brent M. Rosenthal argued the cause for respondents.
With him on the brief was Frederick M. Baron. *
CHIEF JUSTICE REHNQUIST delivered the opinion of the Court.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit held that respondents should be allowed to execute against petitioner's surety on a supersedeas bond posted by petitioner where the judgment which occasioned the bond had become final. It so held even though the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Middle District of Florida previously had issued an injunction prohibiting respondents
*Robert B. Millner and Lorie A. Chaiten filed a brief for Northbrook Property and Casualty Insurance Co. as amicus curiae urging reversal.
Briefs of amici curiae urging affirmance were filed for the Association of Trial Lawyers of America by Jeffrey Robert White, J. Conard Metcalf, and Larry S. Stewart; and for the New York Clearing House Association by Richard H. Klapper and James S. Rubin.
Larry L. Simms filed a brief for Aetna Casualty and Surety Co. as amicus curiae.