Wilson & Co. v. Smith, 44 U.S. 763 (1845)
U.S. Supreme CourtWilson & Co. v. Smith, 44 U.S. 3 How. 763 763 (1845)
Wilson & Co. v. Smith
44 U.S. (3 How.) 763
Whenever, by express agreement of the parties, a sub-agent is to be employed by an agent to receive money for the principal, or where an authority to do so may fairly be implied from the usual course of trade, or the nature of the transaction; the principal may treat the sub-agent as his agent, and when he has received the money, may recover it in an action for money had and received.
If, in such case, the sub-agent has made no advances and given no new credit to the anent on account of the remittance of the bill, the sub-agent cannot protect himself against such an action by passing the amount of the bill to the general credit of the agent, although the agent may be his debtor.
The record, being very short, it will be inserted entire.
"This was an action of assumpsit brought in this Court by the plaintiffs, to recover from the defendant the sum of eight hundred dollars and interest, being the amount of a draft or bill of exchange drawn by one Henry B. Holcombe, of Augusta, in the State of Georgia, upon one Charles F. Mills, of Savannah, in said state, and accepted by him, and paid to the defendant. The declaration contained two counts. The first was for money collected and received by the defendant to and for the use of the plaintiffs, upon the particular bill of exchange set out and described in the declaration; the second count was generally for money had and received. The plea of nonassumpsit was pleaded by the defendant in bar of the action, 'it being proved that the draft or bill of exchange upon which the money was collected and received by the defendant was the property of the plaintiffs;' that it had been by them placed in the hands of their agent, David W. St. John, at Augusta, Georgia, for
collection, and by him, St. John, forwarded to the defendant, St. John's agent, at Savannah, Georgia, for acceptance and collection; that it was accepted and paid to the defendant, by whom the proceeds were received and credited to the account of St. John, from whom the defendant received the draft or bill for collection, and who was indebted to the defendant at the time. That at the time the said bill was so paid to the defendant, and by him credited to the account of St. John, he, St. John, had failed in business, and had departed this life; that he failed, and had not recovered his affairs at the time of his death, and was insolvent; that the credit for the amount of the bill, carried by the defendant to St. John's account, was made in payment of a previously existing debt due by St. John to the defendant, no new transaction having arisen between the defendant and St. John after the payment of the said bill to the defendant;"
"that to secure the payment of his debt to the defendant, St. John had transferred to the defendant three hundred shares of the capital stock of the Augusta Insurance and Banking Company, upon which $100 per share had been paid; that the defendant appeared satisfied with this security, and that St. John would then have given additional security had the defendant required it."
That the draft or bill of exchange was made payable to the order of Henry B. Holcombe, the drawer, and by him endorsed in blank, and endorsed by St. John to H. Smith, Esq. (the defendant), or order. That when the draft was sent to the defendant for collection he was not apprised to whom it belonged, nor were any instructions or directions given to him as to the disposition of the money when collected.
"The following point was presented, during the progress of the trial, for the opinion of the judges, on which the judges were opposed in opinion, viz., whether there was such privity of contract between the plaintiffs and defendant, either express or implied, as would enable the plaintiffs to maintain the action for money had and received."
"Which said point, upon which the disagreement has happened, is stated above, under the direction of the judges of the said court, at the request of the counsel for the parties in the cause, and ordered to be certified into the Supreme Court of the United States at the next session, pursuant to the act of Congress in such case made and provided. "