Rosebud Sioux Tribe v. Kneip
430 U.S. 584 (1977)

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U.S. Supreme Court

Rosebud Sioux Tribe v. Kneip, 430 U.S. 584 (1977)

Rosebud Sioux Tribe v. Kneip

No. 75-562

Argued January 12, 1977

Decided April 4, 1977

430 U.S. 584

CERTIORARI TO THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS

FOR THE EIGHTH CIRCUIT

Syllabus

Both the language and legislative history of the Acts of 1904, 1907, and 1910, whereby land in certain counties in South Dakota located within the boundaries of the Rosebud Sioux Reservation as defined in an 1889 Treaty was required to be ceded by the Reservation Indians to the Government for sale to settlers under the homestead and townsite laws with the proceeds to be credited to the Indians only as received or, with respect to certain parcels, for transfer to South Dakota for school use, held clearly to evidence a congressional intent to diminish the boundaries of the Reservation. Although such Acts were unilateral Acts of Congress without the consent of three-fourths of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe's adult male members, as was required by the original 1868 Treaty establishing the Reservation, that fact does not directly bear on the question whether Congress, by these later Acts, intended to diminish the Reservation boundaries. Nor is it conclusive with respect to congressional intent that these Acts changed the method of payment from an outright, fixed-sum payment to the Indians required by a 1901 Agreement that would have amended the 1889 Treaty and would have resulted in a diminution of the Reservation boundaries, but which, although approved by three-fourths of the Tribe's adult male members, was never ratified by Congress. Pp. 430 U. S. 586-615.

521 F.2d 87, affirmed.

REHNQUIST, J., delivered the opinion of the Court, in which BURGER, C.J., and WHITE, BLACKMUN, POWELL, and STEVENS, JJ., joined. MARSHALL, J., filed a dissenting opinion, in which BRENNAN and STEWART, JJ., joined, post, p. 430 U. S. 615.

Page 430 U. S. 585

MR. JUSTICE REHNQUIST delivered the opinion of the Court.

In June, 1972, the Rosebud Sioux Tribe sued in the United States District Court for the District of South Dakota to obtain a declaratory judgment that the original boundaries of their reservation, as defined in the Act of March 2, 1889, 25 Stat. 888, had not been diminished by three subsequent Acts of Congress passed in 1904, 1907, and 1910 respectively. [Footnote 1] The District Court, noting that,

"[f]rom the time these acts were passed, these [four] counties have been treated as outside the Rosebud Sioux Reservation by the settlers, their descendants, the State of South Dakota and the federal courts,"

375 F.Supp. 1065, 1084, denied relief. It concluded that Congress had intended to diminish the Reservation so as to exclude the four counties in South Dakota affected by the 1904, the 1907, and the 1910 Acts. The United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit, in a careful and comprehensive opinion, affirmed the judgment of the District Court. 521 F.2d 87. We granted certiorari, 425 U.S. 989, to review this determination in the light of our recent decisions in DeCoteau v. District County Court,420 U. S. 425 (1975), and Mattz v. Arnett,412 U. S. 481 (1973). Since we conclude that the three Acts

Page 430 U. S. 586

of Congress in question satisfy the requirement that

"[a] congressional determination to terminate [an Indian reservation] must be expressed on the face of the Act or be clear from the surrounding circumstances and legislative history,"

Mattz v. Arnett, supra at 412 U. S. 505, we affirm the judgment of the Court of Appeals.

I

When established, the Rosebud Indian Reservation contained somewhat over 3.2 million acres, and covered all or a portion of what later became five counties in South Dakota: Gregory, Tripp, Lyman, Mellette, and Todd. The three Acts we are asked to construe successively disposed of all unallotted lands in Gregory County (1904 Act), in Tripp and Lyman Counties (1907 Act), and in Mellette County (1910 Act). Only Todd County remains unaffected by these post-1889 enactments. The contention of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe is that these Acts, while opening up the unallotted land outside of Todd County to non-Indian settlement, did not thereby change the Reservation boundaries, which continued to encompass these five counties.

In determining whether or not the 1889 Reservation boundaries were subsequently diminished by congressional enactments, we are guided by well established legal principles. The underlying premise is that congressional intent will control. DeCoteau v. District County Court, supra at 420 U. S. 444, 420 U. S. 449; United States v. Celestine,215 U. S. 278, 215 U. S. 285 (1909). In determining this intent, we are cautioned to follow

"the general rule that '[d]oubtful expressions are to be resolved in favor of the weak and defenseless people who are the wards of the nation, dependent upon its protection and good faith.'"

McClanahan v. Arizona State Tax Comm'n,411 U. S. 164, 411 U. S. 174 (1973), quoting Carpenter v. Shaw,280 U. S. 363, 280 U. S. 367 (1930); see also Mattz v. Arnett, supra at 412 U. S. 505. The mere fact that a reservation has been opened to settlement does not necessarily mean that the opened area has lost its reservation

Page 430 U. S. 587

status. Mattz v. Arnett, supra; see also Seymour v. Superintendent,368 U. S. 351 (1962). But the "general rule" does not command a determination that reservation status survives in the face of congressionally manifested intent to the contrary. DeCoteau v. District County Court, supra. In all cases, "the face of the Act," the "surrounding circumstances," and the "legislative history," are to be examined with an eye toward determining what congressional intent was. Mattz v. Arnett, supra at 412 U. S. 505.

Applying these principles to the facts of this case, we conclude that the Acts of 1904, 1907, and 1910 did clearly evidence congressional intent to diminish the boundaries of the Rosebud Sioux Reservation. The parties agree that an amendment to the 1889 Treaty, which provided for a fixed-sum payment and which was approved by three-fourths of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe's adult males in 1901, would have resulted in the diminution of the Rosebud Reservation boundaries. Congress did not, however, approve the 1901 amendment to the Treaty which the Tribe had ratified. The Tribe contends that, lacking tribal ratification and a fixed-sum provision, the later Acts were ineffectual to accomplish this same result. In the Tribe's view, the absence of these two factors vitally distinguishes the Acts in question from the otherwise similar Act examined in DeCoteau v. District County Court, supra. Because of the reasons hereafter set forth in greater detail, we conclude that, although the Acts of 1904, 1907, and 1910 were unilateral Acts of Congress without the consent of three-quarters of the members of the tribe required by the original Treaty, [Footnote 2] that fact does not have any direct bearing on the question of whether Congress, by these later Acts, did intend to diminish the Reservation boundaries. By the time of

Page 430 U. S. 588

the first of these Acts, in 1904, Congress was aware of the decision of this Court in Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock,187 U. S. 553 (1903), which held that Congress possessed the authority to abrogate unilaterally the provisions of an Indian treaty. We also conclude that the changed method of payment is not conclusive with respect to congressional intent. Although the later Acts of Congress made less secure provisions for payment to the Tribe for the lands in question than did the 1901 Treaty, their language with respect to the reservation status of the opened lands was identical with or derivative from the language used in that proposed amendment. [Footnote 3] The language was also substantially equivalent to that used in the executed agreement involved in DeCoteau. We agree with the Court of Appeals and the District Court that this language not only opened the land for settlement, but diminished the boundaries of the Reservation pro tanto. [Footnote 4]

Page 430 U. S. 589

II

The Rosebud Sioux are one of the tribes of Indians of the Sioux Nation. The Treaty of April 29, 1868, 15 Stat. 635, set aside all the land in South Dakota west of the Missouri River as the Great Sioux Reservation, consisting of some 25 million acres. Article 12 of the Treaty provided that no subsequent treaty for the cession of any part of the reservation would be valid without the written consent of three-fourths of the adult male Indians on the reservation. Despite this provision, in 1877, approximately 7.5 million acres, consisting of the Black Hills portion of the Great Sioux Reservation, were removed from the Reservation by the Act of February 28, 1877, 19 Stat. 254. See Sioux Tribe of Indians v. United States, 97 Ct.Cl. 613 (1942), cert. denied, 318 U.S. 789 (1943). Of the remaining Reservation, approximately one-half was "restored to the public domain" under the Act of March 2, 1889, 25 Stat. 896, § 21, [Footnote 5] while six separate Reservations were carved out of the remainder, §§ 1-6. Section 2 set apart the Rosebud Reservation, encompassing what were later organized as three full counties (Todd, Mellette, and Tripp), a major portion of Gregory County, and a small portion of Lyman. [Footnote 6] This Reservation, as originally delimited, contained over 3.2 million acres.

Page 430 U. S. 590

Around the turn of the century, the "familiar forces" to which we referred in DeCoteau v. District County Court led to demands to open up the Reservation. [Footnote 7] A provision in the Indian Department Appropriation Act, Mar. 3, 1901, 31 Stat. 1077, provided:

"[T]he Secretary of the Interior be, and he is hereby, authorized, in his discretion, to negotiate, through any United States Indian inspector, agreements with any Indians for the cession to the United States of portions of their respective reservations or surplus unallotted lands, any agreements thus negotiated to be subject to subsequent ratification by Congress."

Shortly thereafter, Inspector James McLaughlin was instructed by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs to begin "negotiations with the Indians of the Rosebud reservation, in South Dakota, for the cession of the unallotted eastern portion of their reserve." Letter dated Mar. 19, 1901, from W. A. Jones, Commissioner, Office of Indian Affairs, Department of Interior. Following meetings with members of the Tribe during the spring and summer of 1901, Inspector McLaughlin obtained the written consent of three-fourths of the

Page 430 U. S. 591

male Indian adults to the cession of some 416,000 acres of unallotted land in Gregory County for the sum of $1,040,000, subject to congressional ratification. [Footnote 8] The negotiated Agreement, however, was never ratified, [Footnote 9] "because of the fact that it provided that the Government should pay for the lands outright. . . ." 38 Cong.Rec. 1423 (1904) (remarks of Rep. Burke). [Footnote 10]

What is important for our purposes is the undisputed fact that the 1901 Agreement, had it been ratified by Congress, would have disestablished that portion of the Rosebud Reservation which lay in Gregory County. Inspector McLaughlin explained to the Tribe that "[t]he cession of Gregory County" by ratification of the Agreement

"will leave your reservation a compact and almost square tract, and would leave your

Page 430 U. S. 592

reservation about the size and area of Pine Ridge Reservation. [Footnote 11]"

It is conceded that his description was correct; the effect and intent of the 1901 Agreement, if ratified, would have been to change the Reservation boundaries. As we noted in DeCoteau v. District County Court, 420 U.S. at 420 U. S. 445, in construing virtually identical language: "The Agreement's language . . . was precisely suited to this purpose [of disestablishment]." In this Agreement, therefore, we have -- unlike the situation in Mattz v. Arnett,412 U. S. 481 (1973) -- an unmistakable baseline purpose of disestablishment.

An examination of the legislative processes which resulted in the 1904 Act convinces us, as it did the lower courts, that this purpose was carried forth and enacted. Because of the history of the 1901 Agreement, the 1904 Act cannot, and should not, be read as if it were the first time Congress had addressed itself to the diminution of the Rosebud Reservation.

In 1903, new bills were introduced, and subsequently reported from committee in both chambers of Congress, which proposed

"to adopt a new policy in acquiring lands from the Indians [by] provid[ing] that the lands shall be disposed of to settlers . . and to be paid for by the settlers, and the money to be paid to the Indians only as it is received . . . from the settlers. [Footnote 12]"

The Senate bill, S. 7390, passed the Senate in February, 36 Cong.Rec. 2748 (1903), but the 57th Congress expired before the House could give it consideration. In line with the changes in S. 7390, which related to the method of payment, Inspector McLaughlin was subsequently instructed to go to the Rosebud Reservation to negotiate a new

Page 430 U. S. 593

agreement. [Footnote 13] He explained to the Rosebud Tribe:

"I am here to enter into an agreement which is similar to that of two years ago, except as to the manner of payment. . . . You will still have as large a reservation as Pine Ridge after this is cut off. [Footnote 14]"

Inspector McLaughlin failed to get three-fourths of the adult male Indians to consent to this new method of payment, although he did obtain the consent of a majority, provided that the price to homesteaders be raised from $2.50 to $2.75 per acre. Agreement of Aug. 10, 1903. [Footnote 15] However,

Page 430 U. S. 594

as Inspector McLaughlin had explained to the Tribe, [Footnote 16] Congress understood that it was not bound by the three-fourths consent requirement of the 1868 Treaty with the Sioux Nation. In Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock, 187 U.S. at 187 U. S. 566, 568, this Court, dealing with the validity of a cession of tribal lands enacted in contravention of a treaty requiring three-fourths Indian consent, held:

"The power exists to abrogate the provisions of an Indian treaty, though presumably such power will be exercised only when circumstances arise which will not only justify the government in disregarding the stipulations of the treaty, but may demand, in the interest of the country and the Indians themselves, that it should do so. When, therefore, treaties were entered into between the United States and a tribe of Indians, it was never doubted that the power to abrogate existed in Congress."

"* * * *"

". . . In any event, as Congress possessed full power in the matter, the judiciary cannot question or inquire into the motives which prompted the enactment of this legislation."

Although Inspector McLaughlin failed to garner the signatures of three-quarters of the Indians in consent of the proposed changes, Congress understandably relied on this holding as authorizing it to diminish unilaterally the Reservation boundaries.

In examining congressional intent, there is no indication

Page 430 U. S. 595

that Congress intended to change anything other than the form of, and responsibility for, payment. In recommending ratification of the 1901 Agreement, as modified, the accompanying House Report stated:

"The purpose of this bill is to ratify and amend an agreement made with the Rosebud Indians in South Dakota by Inspector James McLaughlin, dated September 14, 1901, providing for the cession to the United States of the unallotted portion of their lands in Gregory County, S. Dak., and opening the same to settlement and entry under the homestead and town-site laws."

"* * * *"

"There is no question but what the Indians have no use for the land that is proposed to be ceded by this bill; that the tract is only a very small portion of the Rosebud Reservation, and is really only a corner of the reservation, which will be left compact and in a square tract and a reservation about equal in size to the Pine Ridge Reservation, in South Dakota. [Footnote 17]"

On the floor of the House, Congressman Burke, the 1904 Act's sponsor, in discussing the changes in the Agreement since

Page 430 U. S. 596

1901, made clear that he new bill was concerned only with the responsibility for payment, 38 Cong.Rec. 1423 (1904):

"Mr. BURKE. . . . In 1901, a treaty was entered into with the Rosebud Indians on the part of the United States, by which the Indians agreed to sell to the Government this land for $2.50 per acre. That treaty was transmitted to Congress, and because of the fact that it provided that the Government should pay for the lands outright and then take the chance of the Treasury being reimbursed by disposing of the lands to settlers, it never got further than through the Committee on Indian Affairs, which unanimously reported it favorably. It was never given consideration in the House."

"Toward the concluding days of the last session of Congress, a new bill was prepared, substantially as this bill now provides, and that bill provided that the lands should be ceded by the Indians to the Government, disposed of to settlers under the provisions of the homestead law, the price to be fixed at $2.50 an acre, as was provided in the original treaty. . . . This bill is substantially the same as the bill which I have just referred to. . . . "

The bill itself, as introduced and passed by both Houses, incorporated the entire text of the 1903 Agreement, which itself followed the 1901 Agreement except that: (1) the Indians were not guaranteed any consideration for the land except with respect to the 16th and 36th sections (school sections), but were to be paid only as the lands were actually sold to settlers; (2) the United States did not guarantee to find purchasers, but agreed only to "act as trustee for said Indians to dispose of said lands." [Footnote 18]

In particular, the 1904

Page 430 U. S. 597

Act incorporated verbatim the language of immediate cession of the 1901 Agreement:

"The said Indians belonging on the Rosebud Reservation, South Dakota, for the consideration hereinafter named, do hereby cede, surrender, grant, and convey to the United States all their claim, right, title, and interest in and to all that part of the Rosebud Indian Reservation now remaining unallotted, situated within the boundaries of Gregory County. . . ."

33 Stat. 256. As in DeCoteau v. District County Court, 420 U.S. at 420 U. S. 445, this language is "precisely suited" to disestablishment.

Petitioner, however, objects that a "cession" requires bilateral consent, and the failure of Inspector McLaughlin to gain the approval of three-quarters of the male adult Indians vitiates any "cession." As a matter of strict English usage, petitioner is undoubtedly correct: "cession" refers to a voluntary surrender of territory or jurisdiction, rather than a withdrawal of such jurisdiction by the authority of a superior sovereign. But as Mr. Justice (then Judge) Holmes commented, we are not free to say to Congress: "We see what you are driving at, but you have not said it, and therefore we shall go on as before." Johnson v. United States, 163 F. 30, 32 (CA1 1908). Congress was simply repeating verbatim language from a bill ratifying the 1901 Agreement, which had made the proper use of the word "cession" because the Agreement had been approved by the Tribe. The use of the word "cession" in the 1904 Act, which was not consented to by the required extraordinary majority of the Tribe, does not make the meaning of the Act ambiguous as between diminution of the Reservation boundaries on the one hand, and merely opening up designated lands for settlement by non-Indians, on the other. The word is technically misused, but the meaning is quite clear. It was

Page 430 U. S. 598

intended to accomplish, in 1904, precisely what it was intended to accomplish in 1901. Congress was under no misapprehension that the required portion of the Tribe had in fact approved the treaty. It knew that, while a majority of the Tribe had approved it, the required extraordinary majority had not; but it had determined nonetheless to go ahead and accomplish the same result unilaterally as the Agreement would have accomplished bilaterally. [Footnote 19]

The "bill provided that the lands should be ceded by the Indians to the Government. . . ." 38 Cong.Rec. 1423 (1904) (remarks of Rep. Burke). It is clear that Congress was relying on Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock,187 U. S. 553 (1903), in making this unilateral declaration. There is nothing in the changed method of payment, or the failure to obtain a three-quarters vote from the Indians, which indicates that the clear intent of the 1901 Agreement to diminish the Reservation boundaries had changed between 1901 and 1904. [Footnote 20] The Tribe, moreover, was eventually paid for the land, supra at 430 U. S. 588 n. 3.

Page 430 U. S. 599

This implied continuity in purpose from 1901 to 1904 does not, however, stand alone in indicating congressional intent. Section 4 of the 1904 Act, 33 Stat. 258, provides, in pertinent part:

"[S]ections sixteen and thirty-six of the lands hereby acquired in each township shall not be subject to entry, but shall be reserved for the use of the common schools and paid for by the United States at two dollars and fifty cents per acre, and the same are hereby granted to the State of South Dakota for such purpose. . . ."

When North and South Dakota were admitted into the Union, § 10 of the admitting Act, Act of Feb. 22, 1889, 25 Stat. 679, provided, in pertinent part:

"[U]pon the admission of each of said States into the Union sections numbered sixteen and thirty-six in every township of said proposed States . . . are hereby granted to said States for the support of common schools . . . : Provided, That the sixteenth and thirty-sixth sections embraced in permanent reservations for national purposes

Page 430 U. S. 600

shall not, at any time, be subject to the grants . . . of this act, nor shall any land embraced in Indian, military, or other reservations of any character be subject to the grants . . . of this act until the reservation shall have been extinguished and such lands be restored to, and become a part of, the public domain."

The language of § 10 is mandatory: "nor shall" the 16th and 36th sections of lands within Indian reservations "be subject to the grants . . . until the reservation shall have been extinguished. . . ." While Congress would have had the power to establish other grants, cf. 43 U.S.C. § 856, the legislative history, in this case, demonstrates that Congress "included the provision to implement the grant in the enabling act, and for no other reason." 521 F.2d at 101. [Footnote 21] Both the House and Senate Reports explicitly noted that the "school sections" provision of what became the 1904 Act "is in conformity with the guarantee given to the State of South Dakota by Congress in the enabling act. . . ." [Footnote 22] Congress, therefore, clearly thought that it was acting pursuant to § 10 of the Act of February 22, 1889, and not sub silentio adding an additional grant for

Page 430 U. S. 601

school lands located within a continuing reservation. [Footnote 23] The far more natural construction, then, is to read a congressional intent to disestablish Gregory County from the Rosebud Reservation, thereby making the sections available for disposition to the State of South Dakota for "school sections" under § 10 of the Act of February 22, 1889. [Footnote 24]

Page 430 U. S. 602

That it was clearly understood, at least by the Executive Branch, that the 1904 Act, like the 1901 Agreement, contemplated a diminution of the Reservation, is apparent from the Rosebud Proclamation of May 13, 1904, 33 Stat. 2354. In accordance with the requirement of § 2 of the 1904 Act that the land would

"be disposed of under the general provisions of the homestead and town-site laws of the United States, and shall be opened to settlement and entry,"

the Proclamation stated, in pertinent part:

"Whereas by an agreement between the Sioux tribe of Indians on the Rosebud Reservation, in the State of South Dakota, on the one part, and James McLaughlin, a United States Indian Inspector, on the other part, amended and ratified by act of Congress . . . , the said Indian tribe ceded, conveyed, transferred, relinquished, and surrendered, forever and absolutely, without any reservation whatsoever, expressed or implied, unto the United States of America, all their claim, title, and interest of every kind and character in and to the unallotted lands embraced in the following described tract of country now in the State of South Dakota, . . ."

"* * * *"

"NOW, THEREFORE, I, THEODORE ROOSEVELT, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the power vested in me by law, do hereby declare and make known that all of the lands so as aforesaid ceded by the Sioux tribe of Indians of the Rosebud Reservation . . . will, on the eighth day of August, 1904, at 9 o'clock a.m., in the manner herein prescribed and not otherwise, be opened to entry and settlement and to disposition under the general provisions of the homestead and townsite laws of the United States."

(Emphasis supplied.) The opening portion of the Proclamation is an unambiguous, contemporaneous, statement, by the Nation's Chief Executive,

Page 430 U. S. 603

of a perceived disestablishment of Gregory County. It reflects, we believe, the clear import of the congressional action in the 1904 Act.

In sum, an examination of the process leading up to the enactment of the 1904 Act, as well as the language and legislative history, leads us, as it led the Court of Appeals and the District Court, to the firm conclusion that congressional intent was to exclude Gregory County from the Rosebud Reservation. [Footnote 25]

Although the subsequent "jurisdictional history," DeCoteau v. District County Court, 420 U.S. at 420 U. S. 442, is not entirely clear, the single most salient fact is the unquestioned actual assumption of state jurisdiction over the unallotted lands in Gregory County since the passage of the 1904 Act, see 375 F.Supp. at 1084; Amended Complaint

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