Michael M. v. Superior Ct.
450 U.S. 464 (1981)

Annotate this Case

U.S. Supreme Court

Michael M. v. Superior Ct., 450 U.S. 464 (1981)

Michael M. v. Superior Court

No. 79-1344

Argued November 4, 1980

Decided March 23, 1981

450 U.S. 464

CERTIORARI TO THE SUPREME COURT OF CALIFORNIA

Syllabus

Petitioner, then a 17 1/2-year-old male, was charged with violating California's "statutory rape" law, which defines unlawful sexual intercourse as "an act of sexual intercourse accomplished with a female not the wife of the perpetrator, where the female is under the age of 18 years." Prior to trial, petitioner sought to set aside the information on both state and federal constitutional grounds, asserting that the statute unlawfully discriminated on the basis of gender since men alone were criminally liable thereunder. The trial court and the California Court of Appeal denied relief, and on review the California Supreme Court upheld the statute.

Held: The judgment is affirmed. Pp. 450 U. S. 468-476; 450 U. S. 481-487.

25 Cal.3d 608, 601 P.2d 572, affirmed.

JUSTICE REHNQUIST, joined by CHIEF JUSTICE BURGER, JUSTICE STEWART, and JUSTICE POWELL, concluded that the statute does not violate the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Pp. 450 U. S. 468-476.

(a) Gender-based classifications are not "inherently suspect" so as to be subject to so-called "strict scrutiny," but will be upheld if they bear a "fair and substantial relationship" to legitimate state ends. Reed v. Reed,404 U. S. 71. Because the Equal Protection Clause does not "demand that a statute necessarily apply equally to all persons" or require "things which are different in fact . . . to be treated in law as though they were the same," Rinaldi v. Yeager,384 U. S. 305, 384 U. S. 309, a statute will be upheld where the gender classification is not invidious, but rather realistically reflects the fact that the sexes are not similarly situated in certain circumstances. Pp. 450 U. S. 468-469.

(b) One of the purposes of the California statute in which the State has a strong interest is the prevention of illegitimate teenage pregnancies. The statute protects women from sexual intercourse and pregnancy at an age when the physical, emotional, and psychological consequences are particularly severe. Because virtually all of the significant harmful and identifiable consequences of teenage pregnancy fall on the female, a legislature acts well within its authority when it

Page 450 U. S. 465

elects to punish only the participant who, by nature, suffers few of the consequences of his conduct. Pp. 450 U. S. 470-473.

(c) There is no merit in petitioner's contention that the statute is impermissibly underinclusive, and must, in order to pass judicial scrutiny, be broadened so as to hold the female as criminally liable as the male. The relevant inquiry is not whether the statute is drawn as precisely as it might have been, but whether the line chosen by the California Legislature is within constitutional limitations. In any event, a gender-neutral statute would frustrate the State's interest in effective enforcement, since a female would be less likely to report violations of the statute if she herself would be subject to prosecution. The Equal Protection Clause does not require a legislature to enact a statute so broad that it may well be incapable of enforcement. Pp. 450 U. S. 473-474.

(d) Nor is the statute impermissibly overbroad because it makes unlawful sexual intercourse with prepubescent females, incapable of becoming pregnant. Aside from the fact that the statute could be justified on the grounds that very young females are particularly susceptible to physical injury from sexual intercourse, the Constitution does not require the California Legislature to limit the scope of the statute to older teenagers and exclude young girls. P. 450 U. S. 475.

(e) And the statute is not unconstitutional as applied to petitioner who, like the girl involved, was under 18 at the time of sexual intercourse, on the asserted ground that the statute presumes in such circumstances that the male is the culpable aggressor. The statute does not rest on such an assumption, but instead is an attempt to prevent illegitimate teenage pregnancy by providing an additional deterrent for men. The age of the man is irrelevant, since young men are as capable as older men of inflicting the harm sought to be prevented. P. 450 U. S. 475.

BLACKMUN, J., concluded that the California statutory rape law is a sufficiently reasoned and constitutional effort to control at its inception the problem of teenage pregnancies, and that the California Supreme Court's judgment should be affirmed on the basis of the applicable test for gender-based classifications as set forth in Reed v. Reed,404 U. S. 71, 404 U. S. 76, and Craig v. Boren,429 U. S. 190, 429 U. S. 197. Pp. 450 U. S. 481-487.

REHNQUIST, J., announced the judgment of the Court and delivered an opinion, in which BURGER, C.J. and STEWART and POWELL, JJ., joined. STEWART, J., filed a concurring opinion, post, p. 450 U. S. 476. BLACKMUN, J., filed an opinion concurring in the judgment, post, p. 450 U. S. 481. BRENNAN, J., filed a dissenting opinion, in which WHITE and MARSALL, JJ., joined, post, p. 450 U. S. 488. STEVENS, J., filed a dissenting opinion, post, p. 450 U. S. 496.

Page 450 U. S. 466

JUSTICE REHNQUIST announced the judgment of the Court and delivered an opinion, in which THE CHIEF JUSTICE, JUSTICE STEWART, and JUSTICE POWELL joined.

The question presented in this case is whether California's "statutory rape" law, § 261.5 of the Cal.Penal Code Ann. (West Supp. 1981), violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Section 261.5 defines unlawful sexual intercourse as "an act of sexual intercourse accomplished with a female not the wife of the perpetrator, where the female is under the age of 18 years." The statute thus makes men alone criminally liable for the act of sexual intercourse.

In July, 1978, a complaint was filed in the Municipal Court of Sonoma County, Cal., alleging that petitioner, then a 17 1/2-year-old male, had had unlawful sexual intercourse with a female under the age of 18, in violation of § 261.5. The evidence adduced at a preliminary hearing showed that, at approximately midnight on June 3, 1978, petitioner and two friends approached Sharon, a 16 1/2-year-old female, and her sister as they waited at a bus stop. Petitioner and Sharon,

Page 450 U. S. 467

who had already been drinking, moved away from the others and began to kiss. After being struck in the face for rebuffing petitioner's initial advances, Sharon submitted to sexual intercourse with petitioner. Prior to trial, petitioner sought to set aside the information on both state and federal constitutional grounds, asserting that § 261.5 unlawfully discriminated on the basis of gender. The trial court and the California Court of Appeal denied petitioner's request for relief, and petitioner sought review in the Supreme Court of California.

The Supreme Court held that "section 261.5 discriminates on the basis of sex, because only females may be victims and only males may violate the section." 25 Cal.3d 608, 611, 601 P.2d 572, 574. The court then subjected the classification to "strict scrutiny," stating that it must be justified by a compelling state interest. It found that the classification was "supported not by mere social convention, but by the immutable physiological fact that it is the female exclusively who can become pregnant." Ibid. Canvassing "the tragic human costs of illegitimate teenage pregnancies," including the large number of teenage abortions, the increased medical risk associated with teenage pregnancies, and the social consequences of teenage childbearing, the court concluded that the State has a compelling interest in preventing such pregnancies. Because males alone can "physiologically cause the result which the law properly seeks to avoid," the court further held that the gender classification was readily justified as a means of identifying offender and victim. For the reasons stated below, we affirm the judgment of the California Supreme Court. [Footnote 1]

Page 450 U. S. 468

As is evident from our opinions, the Court has had some difficulty in agreeing upon the proper approach and analysis in cases involving challenges to gender-based classifications. The issues posed by such challenges range from issues of standing, see Orr v. Orr,440 U. S. 268 (1979), to the appropriate standard of judicial review for the substantive classification. Unlike the California Supreme Court, we have not held that gender-based classifications are "inherently suspect," and thus we do not apply so-called "strict scrutiny" to those classifications. See Stanton v. Stanton,421 U. S. 7 (1975). Our cases have held, however, that the traditional minimum rationality test takes on a somewhat "sharper focus" when gender-based classifications are challenged. See Craig v. Boren,429 U. S. 190, 429 U. S. 210 n.* (1976) (POWELL, J., concurring). In Reed v. Reed,404 U. S. 71 (1971), for example, the Court stated that a gender-based classification will be upheld if it

Page 450 U. S. 469

bears a "fair and substantial relationship" to legitimate state ends, while in Craig v. Boren, supra at 429 U. S. 197, the Court restated the test to require the classification to bear a "substantial relationship" to "important governmental objectives."

Underlying these decisions is the principle that a legislature may not

"make overbroad generalizations based on sex which are entirely unrelated to any differences between men and women or which demean the ability or social status of the affected class."

Parham v. Hughes,441 U. S. 347, 441 U. S. 354 (1979) (plurality opinion of STEWART, J.). But because the Equal Protection Clause does not "demand that a statute necessarily apply equally to all persons" or require "things which are different in fact . . . to be treated in law as though they were the same,'" Rinaldi v. Yeager,384 U. S. 305, 384 U. S. 309 (1966), quoting Tigner v. Texas,310 U. S. 141, 310 U. S. 147 (1940), this Court has consistently upheld statutes where the gender classification is not invidious, but rather realistically reflects the fact that the sexes are not similarly situated in certain circumstances. Parham v. Hughes, supra; Califano v. Webster,430 U. S. 313 (1977); Schlesinger v. Ballard,419 U. S. 498 (1975); Kahn v. Shevin,416 U. S. 351 (1974). As the Court has stated, a legislature may "provide for the special problems of women." Weinberger v. Wiesenfeld,420 U. S. 636, 420 U. S. 653 (1975).

Applying those principles to this case, the fact that the California Legislature criminalized the act of illicit sexual intercourse with a minor female is a sure indication of its intent or purpose to discourage that conduct. [Footnote 2] Precisely why the legislature desired that result is, of course, somewhat less clear. This Court has long recognized that "[i]nquiries into congressional motives or purposes are a hazardous matter," United States v. O'Brien,391 U. S. 367, 391 U. S. 383-384 (1968); Palmer v. Thompson,403 U. S. 217, 403 U. S. 224 (1971), and the

Page 450 U. S. 470

search for the "actual" or "primary" purpose of a statute is likely to be elusive. Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing Dev. Corp.,429 U. S. 252, 429 U. S. 265 (1977); McGinnis v. Royster,410 U. S. 263, 410 U. S. 276-277 (1973). Here, for example, the individual legislators may have voted for the statute for a variety of reasons. Some legislators may have been concerned about preventing teenage pregnancies, others about protecting young females from physical injury or from the loss of "chastity," and still others about promoting various religious and moral attitudes towards premarital sex.

The justification for the statute offered by the State and accepted by the Supreme Court of California, is that the legislature sought to prevent illegitimate teenage pregnancies. That finding, of course, is entitled to great deference. Reitman v. Mulkey,387 U. S. 369, 387 U. S. 373-374 (1967). And although our cases establish that the State's asserted reason for the enactment of a statute may be rejected, if it "could not have been a goal of the legislation," Weinberger v. Wiesenfeld, supra at 420 U. S. 648, n. 16, this is not such a case.

We are satisfied not only that the prevention of illegitimate pregnancy is at least one of the "purposes" of the statute, but also that the State has a strong interest in preventing such pregancy. At the risk of stating the obvious, teenage pregnancies, which have increased dramatically over the last two decades, [Footnote 3] have significant social, medical, and economic consequences for both the mother and her child, and the State. [Footnote 4]

Page 450 U. S. 471

Of particular concern to the State is that approximately half of all teenage pregnancies end in abortion. [Footnote 5] And of those children who are born, their illegitimacy makes them likely candidates to become wards of the State. [Footnote 6]

We need not be medical doctors to discern that young men and young women are not similarly situated with respect to the problems and the risks of sexual intercourse. Only women may become pregnant, and they suffer disproportionately the profound physical, emotional, and psychological consequences of sexual activity. The statute at issue here

Page 450 U. S. 472

protects women from sexual intercourse at an age when those consequences are particularly severe. [Footnote 7]

The question thus boils down to whether a State may attack the problem of sexual intercourse and teenage pregnancy directly by prohibiting a male from having sexual intercourse with a minor female. [Footnote 8] We hold that such a statute is

Page 450 U. S. 473

sufficiently related to the State's objectives to pass constitutional muster.

Because virtually all of the significant harmful and inescapably identifiable consequences of teenage pregnancy fall on the young female, a legislature acts well within its authority when it elects to punish only the participant who, by nature, suffers few of the consequences of his conduct. It is hardly unreasonable for a legislature acting to protect minor females to exclude them from punishment. Moreover, the risk of pregnancy itself constitutes a substantial deterrence to young females. No similar natural sanctions deter males. A criminal sanction imposed solely on males thus serves to roughly "equalize" the deterrents on the sexes.

We are unable to accept petitioner's contention that the statute is impermissibly underinclusive and must, in order to pass judicial scrutiny, be broadened so as to hold the female as criminally liable as the male. It is argued that this statute is not necessary to deter teenage pregnancy because a gender-neutral statute, where both male and female would be subject to prosecution, would serve that goal equally well. The relevant inquiry, however, is not whether the statute is drawn as precisely as it might have been, but whether the line chosen by the California Legislature is within constitutional limitations. Kahn v. Shevin, 416 U.S. at 3 416 U. S. 56, n. 10.

In any event, we cannot say that a gender-neutral statute would be as effective as the statute California has chosen to enact. The State persuasively contends that a gender-neutral statute would frustrate its interest in effective enforcement. Its view is that a female is surely less likely to report

Page 450 U. S. 474

violations of the statute if she herself would be subject to criminal prosecution. [Footnote 9] In an area already fraught with prosecutorial dificulties, we decline to hold that the Equal Protection Clause requires a legislature to enact a statute so broad that it may well be incapable of enforcement. [Footnote 10]

Page 450 U. S. 475

We similarly reject petitioner's argument that § 261.5 is impermissibly overbroad because it makes unlawful sexual intercourse with prepubescent females, who are, by definition, incapable of becoming pregnant. Quite apart from the fact that the statute could well be justified on the grounds that very young females are particularly susceptible to physical injury from sexual intercourse, see Rundlett v. Oliver, 607 F.2d 495 (CA1 1979), it is ludicrous to suggest that the Constitution requires the California Legislature to limit the scope of its rape statute to older teenagers and exclude young girls.

There remains only petitioner's contention that the statute is unconstitutional as it is applied to him because he, like Sharon, was under 18 at the time of sexual intercourse. Petitioner argues that the statute is flawed because it presumes that, as between two persons under 18, the male is the culpable aggressor. We find petitioner's contentions unpersuasive. Contrary to his assertions, the statute does not rest on the assumption that males are generally the aggressors. It is, instead, an attempt by a legislature to prevent illegitimate teenage pregnancy by providing an additional deterrent for men. The age of the man is irrelevant, since young men are as capable as older men of inflicting the harm sought to be prevented.

In upholding the California statute, we also recognize that this is not a case where a statute is being challenged on the grounds that it "invidiously discriminates" against females.

Page 450 U. S. 476

To the contrary, the statute places a burden on males which is not shared by females. But we find nothing to suggest that men, because of past discrimination or peculiar disadvantages, are in need of the special solicitude of the courts. Nor is this a case where the gender classification is made "solely for . . . administrative convenience," as in Frontiero v. Richardson,411 U. S. 677, 411 U. S. 690 (1973) (emphasis omitted), or rests on "the baggage of sexual stereotypes" as in Orr v. Orr, 440 U.S. at 440 U. S. 283. As we have held, the statute instead reasonably reflects the fact that the consequences of sexual intercourse and pregnancy fall more heavily on the female than on the male.

Accordingly the judgment of the California Supreme Court is

Affirmed.

[Footnote 1]

The lower federal courts and state courts have almost uniformly concluded that statutory rape law are constitutional. See, e.g., Rundlett v. Oliver, 607 F.2d 495 (CA1 1979); Hall v. McKenzie, 537 F.2d 1232 (CA4 1976); Hall v. State, 365 So.2d 1249, 1252-1253 (Ala.App. 1978), cert. denied, 365 So.2d 1253 (Ala.1979); State v. Gray, 122 Ariz. 445, 446-477, 595 P.2d 990, 991-992 (1979); People v. Mackey, 46 Cal.App.3d 755, 760-761, 120 Cal.Rptr. 157, 160, cert. denied, 423 U.S. 951 (1975); People v. Salinas, 191 Colo. 171, 551 P.2d 703 (1976); State v. Brothers, 384 A.2d 402 (Del.Super.1978); In re W.E.P., 318 A.2d 286, 289-290 (DC 1974); Barnes v. State, 244 Ga. 302, 303-304, 260 S.E.2d 40, 41-42 (1979); State v. Drake, 219 N.W.2d 492, 495-496 (Iowa 1974); State v. Bell, 377 So.2d 303 (La.1979); State v. Rundlett, 391 A.2d 815 (Me.1978); Green v. State, 270 So.2d 695 (Miss.1972); In re J.D.G., 498 S.W.2d 786, 792-793 (Mo.1973); State v. Meloon, 116 N.H. 669, 366 A.2d 1176 (1976); State v. Thompson, 162 N.J.Super. 302, 392 A.2d 678 (1978); People v. Whidden, 51 N.Y.2d 457, 415 N.E.2d 927 (1980); State v. Wilson, 296 N.C. 298, 311-313, 250 S.E.2d 621, 629-630 (1979); Olson v. State, 588 P.2d 1018 (Nev.1979); State v. Elmore, 24 Ore.App. 651, 546 P.2d 1117 (1976); State v. Ware, ___ R.I. ___ , 418 A.2d 1 (1980); Roe v. State, 584 S.W.2d 257, 259 (Tenn.Crim.App. 1979); Ex parte Groves, 571 S.W.2d 888, 892-893 (Tex.Crim.App. 1978); Moore v. McKenzie, 236 S.E.2d 342, 342-343 (W.Va.1977); Flores v. State, 69 Wis.2d 509, 510-511, 230 N.W.2d 637, 638 (1975). Contra, Navedo v. Preisser, 630 F.2d 636 (CA8 1980); United States v. Hicks, 625 F.2d 216 (CA9 1980); Meloon v. Helgemoe, 564 F.2d 602 (CA1 1977) (limited in Rundlett v. Oliver, supra), cert. denied, 436 U.S. 950 (1978).

[Footnote 2]

The statute was enacted as part of California's first penal code in 1850, 1850 Cal.Stats., ch. 99, § 47, p. 234, and recodified and amended in 1970.

[Footnote 3]

In 1976, approximately one million 15-to-19-year-olds became pregnant, one-tenth of all women in that age group. Two-thirds of the pregnancies were illegitimate. Illegitimacy rates for teenagers (births per 1,000 unmarried females ages 14 to 19) increased 75% for 14-to-17-year-olds between 1961 and 1974 and 33% for 18-to-19-year-olds. Alan Guttmacher Institute, 11 Million Teenagers 10, 13 (1976); C. Chilman, Adolescent Sexuality In a Changing American Society 195 (NIH Pub. No. 80-1426, 1980).

[Footnote 4]

The risk of maternal death is 60% higher for a teenager under the age of 15 than for a women in her early twenties. The risk is 13% higher for 15-to-19-year-olds. The statistics further show that most teenage mothers drop out of school and face a bleak economic future. See, e.g., 11 Million Teenagers, supra at 23, 25; Bennett & Bardon, The Effects of a School Program On Teenager Mothers and Their Chil&ren, 47 Am.J.Orthopsychiatry 671 (1977); Phipps-Yonas, Teenage Pregnancy and Motherhood, 50 Am.J.Orthopsychiatry 403, 414 (1980).

[Footnote 5]

This is because teenagers are disproportionately likely to seek abortions. Center for Disease Control, Abortion Surveillance 1976, pp. 22-24 (1978). In 1978, for example, teenagers in California had approximately 54,000 abortions and 53,800 live births. California Center for Health Statistics, Reproductive Health Status of California Teenage Women 1, 23 (Mar.1980).

[Footnote 6]

The policy and intent of the California Legislature evinced in other legislation buttresses our view that the prevention of teenage pregnancy is a purpose of the statute. The preamble to the Pregnancy Freedom of Choice Act, for example, states:

"The legislature finds that pregnancy among unmarried persons under 21 years of age constitutes an increasing social problem in the State of California."

Cal.Welf. & Inst.Code Ann. § 16145 (West 1980).

Subsequent to the decision below, the California Legislature considered and rejected proposals to render § 261.5 gender neutral, thereby ratifying the judgment of the Galifornia Supreme Court. That is enough to answer petitioner's contention that the statute was the " accidental byproduct of a traditional way of thinking about females.'" Califano v. Webster,430 U. S. 313, 430 U. S. 320 (1977) (quoting Califano v. Goldfarb,430 U. S. 199, 430 U. S. 223 (1977) (STEVENS, J., concurring in judgment)). Certainly this decision of the California Legislature is as good a source as is this Court in deciding what is "current" and what is "outmoded" in the perception of women.

[Footnote 7]

Although petitioner concedes that the State has a "compelling" interest in preventing teenage pregnancy, he contends that the "true" purpose of § 261.5 is to protect the virtue and chastity of young women. As such, the statute is unjustifiable because it rests on archaic stereotypes. What we have said above is enough to dispose of that contention. The question for us -- and the only question under the Federal Constitution -- is whether the legislation violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth .mendment, not whether its supporters may have endorsed it for reasons no longer generally accepted. Even if the preservation of female chastity were one of the motives of the statute, and even if that motive be impermissible, petitioner's argument must fail because

"[i]t is a familiar practice of constitutional law that this court will not strike down an otherwise constitutional statute on the basis of an alleged illicit legislative motive."

United States v. O'Brien,391 U. S. 367, 391 U. S. 383 (1968). In Orr v. Orr,440 U. S. 268 (1979), for example, the Court rejected one asserted purpose as impermissible, but then considered other purposes to determine if they could justify the statute. Similarly, in Washington v. Davis,426 U. S. 229, 426 U. S. 243 (1976), the Court distinguished Palmer v. Thompson,403 U. S. 217 (1971), on the grounds that the purposes of the ordinance there were not open to impeachment by evidence that the legislature was actually motivated by an impermissible purpose. See also Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing Dev. Corp.,429 U. S. 252, 429 U. S. 270, n. 21 (1977); Mobile v. Bolden, 446 U. S. 55, 446 U. S. 91 (1980) (STEVENS, J., concurring in judgment).

[Footnote 8]

We do not understand petitioner to question a State's authority to make sexual intercourse among teenagers a criminal act, at least on a gender-neutral basis. In Carey v. Population Services International,431 U. S. 678, 431 U. S. 694, n. 17 (1977) (plurality opinion of BRENNAN, J.), four Members of the Court assumed for the purposes of that case that a State may regulate the sexual behavior of minors, while four other Members of the Court more emphatically stated that such regulation would be permissible. Id. at 431 U. S. 702, 431 U. S. 703 (WHITE, J., concurring in part and concurring in result); id. at 431 U. S. 705-707, 431 U. S. 709 (POWELL, J., concurring in part and concurring in judgment); id. at 431 U. S. 713 (STEVENS, J., concurring in part and concurring in judgment); id. at 431 U. S. 718 (REHNQUIST, J., dissenting). The Court has long recognized that State has even broader authority to protect the physical, mental, and moral wellbeing of its youth than of its adults. See, e.g., Planned Parenthood of Central Mo. v. Danforth,428 U. S. 52, 428 U. S. 72-74 (1976); Ginsberg v. New York,390 U. S. 629, 390 U. S. 639-640 (1968); Prince v. Massachusetts,321 U. S. 158, 321 U. S. 170 (1944).

[Footnote 9]

Petitioner contends that a gender-neutral statute would not hinder prosecutions because the prosecutor could take into account the relative burdens on females and males and generally only prosecute males. But to concede this is to concede all. If the prosecutor, in exercising discretion, will virtually always prosecute just the man and not the woman, we do not see why it is impermissible for the legislature to enact a statute to the same effect.

[Footnote 10]

The question whether a statute is substantially related to its asserted goals is, at best, an opaque one. It can be plausibly argued that a gender-neutral statute would produce fewer prosecutions than the statute at issue here. See STEWART, J., concurring, post at 450 U. S. 481, n. 13. JUSTICE BRENNAN's dissent argues, on the other hand, that

"even assuming that a gender-neutral statute would be more difficult to enforce, . . . [c]ommon sense . . . suggests that a gender-neutral statutory rape law is potentially a greater deterrent of sexual activity than a gender-based law, for the simple reason that a gender-neutral law subjects both men and women to criminal sanctions, and thus arguably has a deterrent effect on twice as many potential violators."

Post at 450 U. S. 493-494 (emphasis deleted). Where such differing speculations as to the effect of a statute are plausible, we think it appropriate to defer to the decision of the California Supreme Court,

"armed as it was with the knowledge of the facts and circumstances concerning the passage and potential impact of [the statute], and familiar with the milieu in which that provision would operate."

Reitman v. Mulkey,387 U. S. 369, 387 U. S. 378-379 (1967).

It should be noted that two of the three cases relied upon by JUSTICE BRENNAN's dissent are readily distinguishable from the instant one. See post at 450 U. S. 490, n. 3. In both Navedo v. Preisser, 630 F.2d 636 (CA8 1980), and Meloon v. Helgemoe, 564 F.2d 602 (CA1 1977), cert. denied, 436 U.S. 950 (1978), the respective governments asserted that the purpose of the statute vas to protect young women from physical injury. Both courts rejected the justification on the grounds that there had been no showing that young females are more likely than males to suffer physical injury from sexual intercourse. They further held, contrary to our decision, that pregnancy prevention was not a "plausible" purpose of the legislation. Thus, neither court reached the issue presented here, whether the statute is substantially related to the prevention of teenage pregnancy. Significantly, Meloon has been severely limlted by Rundlett v. Oliver, 607 F.2d 495 (CA1 1979), where the court upheld a statutory rape law on the ground that the State had shown that sexual intercourse physically injures young women more than males. Here, of course, even JUSTICE BRENNAN's dissent does not dispute that young women suffer disproportionately the deleterious consequences of illegitimate pregnancy.

JUSTICE STEWART, concurring.

Section 261.5, on its face, classifies on the basis of sex. A male who engages in sexual intercourse with an underage female who is not his wife violates the statute; a female who engages in sexual intercourse with an underage male who is not her husband does not. [Footnote 2/1] The petitioner contends that this state law, which punishes only males for the conduct in question, violates his Fourteenth Amendment right to the equal protection of the law. The Court today correctly rejects that contention.

A

At the outset, it should be noted that the statutory discrimination, when viewed as part of the wider scheme of California law, is not as clearcut as might at first appear. Females are not freed from criminal liability in California for engaging in sexual activity that may be harmful. It is unlawful, for example, for any person, of either sex, to molest, annoy, or contribute to the delinquency of anyone under 18 years of

Page 450 U. S. 477

age. [Footnote 2/2] All persons are prohibited from committing "any lewd or lascivious act," including consensual intercourse, with a child under 14. [Footnote 2/3] And members of both sexes may be convicted for engaging in deviant sexual acts with anyone under 18. [Footnote 2/4] Finally, females may be brought within the proscription of § 261.5 itself, since a female may be charged with aiding and abetting its violation. [Footnote 2/5]

Section 261.5 is thus but one part of a broad statutory scheme that protects all minors from the problems and risks attendant upon adolescent sexual activity. To be sure, § 261.5 creates an additional measure of punishment for males who engage in sexual intercourse with females between the ages of 14 and 17. [Footnote 2/6] The question then is whether the Constitution prohibits a state legislature from imposing this additional sanction on a gender-specific basis.

B

The Constitution is violated when government, state or federal, invidiously classifies similarly situated people on the basis of the immutable characteristics with which they were

Page 450 U. S. 478

born. Thus, detrimental racial classifications by government always violate the Constitution, for the simple reason that, so far as the Constitution is concerned, people of different races are always similarly situated. See Fullilove v. Klutznick,448 U. S. 448, 448 U. S. 522 (dissenting opinion); McLaughlin v. Florida,379 U. S. 184, 379 U. S. 198 (concurring opinion); Brown v. Board of Ed.,347 U. S. 483; Plessy v. Ferguson,163 U. S. 537, 163 U. S. 552 (dissenting opinion). By contrast, while detrimental gender classifications by government often violate the Constitution, they do not always do so, for the reason that there are differences between males and females that the Constitution necessarily recognizes. In this case, we deal with the most basic of these differences: females can become pregnant as the result of sexual intercourse; males cannot.

As was recognized in Parham v. Hughes,441 U. S. 347, 441 U. S. 354,

"a State is not free to make overbroad generalizations based on sex which are entirely unrelated to any differences between men and women or which demean the ability or social status of the affected class."

Gender-based classifications may not be based upon administrative convenience, or upon archaic assumptions about the proper roles of the sexes. Craig v. Boren,429 U. S. 190; Frontiero v. Richardson,411 U. S. 677; Reed v. Reed,404 U. S. 71. But we have recognized that, in certain narrow circumstances, men and women are not similarly situated; in these circumstances, a gender classification based on clear differences between the sexes is not invidious, and a legislative classification realistically based upon those differences is not unconstitutional. See Parham v. Hughes, supra; Califano v. Webster,430 U. S. 313, 430 U. S. 316-317; Schlesinger v. Ballard,419 U. S. 498; cf. San Antonio Independent School Dist v. Rodriguez,411 U. S. 1, 411 U. S. 59 (concurring opinion).

"[G]ender-based classifications are not invariably invalid. When men and women are not, in fact, similarly situated in the area covered by the legislation in question, the Equal Protection Clause is not violated."

Caban v. Mohammed,441 U. S. 380, 441 U. S. 398 (dissenting opinion).

Page 450 U. S. 479

Applying these principles to the classification enacted by the California Legislature, it is readily apparent that § 261.5 does not violate the Equal Protection Clause. Young women and men are not similarly situated with respect to the problems and risks associated with intercourse and pregnancy, and the statute is realistically related to the legitimate state purpose of reducing those problems and risks.

C

As the California Supreme Court's catalog shows, the pregnant unmarried female confronts problems more numerous and more severe than any faced by her male partner. [Footnote 2/7] She alone endures the medical risks of pregnancy or abortion. [Footnote 2/8] She suffers disproportionately the social, educational, and emotional consequences of pregnancy. [Footnote 2/9] Recognizing this disproportion,

Page 450 U. S. 480

California has attempted to protect teenage females by prohibiting males from participating in the act necessary for conception. [Footnote 2/10]

The fact that males and females are not similarly situated with respect to the risks of sexual intercourse applies with the same force to males under 18 as it does to older males. The risk of pregnancy is a significant deterrent for unwed young females that is not shared by unmarried males, regardless of their age. Experienced observation confirms the common sense notion that adolescent males disregard the possibility of pregnancy far more than do adolescent females. [Footnote 2/11] And to the extent that § 261.5 may punish males for intercourse with prepubescent females, that punishment is justifiable because of the substantial physical risks for prepubescent females that are not shared by their male counterparts. [Footnote 2/12]

Page 450 U. S. 481

D

The petitioner argues that the California Legislature could have drafted the statute differently, so that its purpose would be accomplished more precisely.

"But the issue, of course, is not whether the statute could have been drafted more wisely, but whether the lines chosen by the . . . [l]egislature are within constitutional limitations."

Kahn v. Shevin,416 U. S. 351, 416 U. S. 356, n. 10. That other States may have decided to attack the same problems more broadly, with gender-neutral statutes, does not mean that every State is constitutionally compelled to do so. [Footnote 2/13]

E

In short, the Equal Protection Clause does not mean that the physiological differences between men and women must be disregarded. While those differences must never be permitted to become a pretext for invidious discrimination, no such discrimination is presented by this case. The Constitution surely does not require a State to pretend that demonstrable differences between men and women do not really exist.

[Footnote 2/1]

But seen. 5 and accompanying text, infra.

[Footnote 2/2]

See Cal.Penal Code Ann. §§ 272, 647a (West Supp. 1981).

[Footnote 2/3]

Cal.Penal Code Ann. § 288 (West Supp. 1981). See People v. Dontanville, 10 Cal.App.3d 783, 796, 89 Cal.Rptr. 172, 180 (2d Dist.).

[Footnote 2/4]

See Cal.Penal Code Ann. §§ 286(b)(1), 288a(b)(1) (West Supp. 1981) .

[Footnote 2/5]

See Cal.Penal Code Ann. § 31 (West 1970); People v. Haywood, 131 Cal.App.2d 259, 280 P.2d 180 (2d Dist.); People v. Lewis, 113 Cal.App.2d 468, 248 P.2d 461 (1st Dist.). According to statistics maintained by the California Department of Justice Bureau of Criminal Statistics, approximately 14% of the juveniles arrested for participation in acts made unlawful by § 261.5 between 1975 and 1979 were females. Moreover, an underage female who is as culpable as her male partner, or more culpable, may be prosecuted as a juvenile delinquent. Cal.Welf. & Inst.Code Ann. § 602 (West Supp. 1981); In re Gladys R., 1 Cal.3d 855, 867-869, 464 P.2d 127, 136-138.

[Footnote 2/6]

Males and females are equally prohibited by § 288 from sexual intercourse with minors under 14. Compare Cal.Penal Code Ann. § 288 (West Supp. 1981) with Cal.Penal Code Ann. §§ 18, 264 (West Supp. 1981).

[Footnote 2/7]

The court noted that, from 1971 through 1976, 83.6% of the 4,860 children born to girls uder 15 in California were illegitimate, as were 51% of those born to girls 15 to 17. The court also observed that, while accounting for only 21% of California pregnancies in 1976, teenagers accounted for 34.7% of legal abortions. See ante at 450 U. S. 470, n. 3.

[Footnote 2/8]

There is also empirical evidence that sexual abuse of young females is a more serious problem than sexual abuse of young males. For example, a review of five studies found that 88% of sexually abused minors were female. Jaffe, Dynneson, & ten Bensel, Sexual Abuse of Children, 129 Am.J. of Diseases of Children 689, 690 (1975). Another study, involving admissions to a hospital emergency room over a 3-year period, reported that 86 of 100 children examined for sexual abuse were girls. Orr & Prietto, Emergency Management of Sexually Abused Children, 133 Am.J. of Diseased Children 630 (1979). See also State v. Craig, 169 Mont. 150, 156-157, 545 P.2d 649, 653; Sarafino, An Estimate of Nationwide Incidence of Sexual Offenses Against Children, 58 Child Welfare 127, 131 (1979).

[Footnote 2/9]

Most teenage mothers do not finish high school, and are disadvantaged economically thereafter. See Moore, Teenage Childbirth and Welfare Dependency, 10 Family Planning Perspectives 233-235 (1978). The suicide rate for teenage mothers is seven times greater than that for teenage girls without children. F. Nye, School-Age Parenthood (Wash.State U.Ext.Bull. No. 667) 8 (1976). And 60% of adolescent mothers aged 15 to 17 are on welfare within two to five years of the birth of their children. Teenage Pregnancy, Everybody's Problem 3-4 (DHEW Publication (HSA) No. 77-5619).

[Footnote 2/10]

Despite the increased availability of contraceptives and sex education, the pregnancy rates for young women are increasing. See Alan Guttmacher Institute, 11 Million Teenagers 12 (1976). See generally C. Chilman, Adolescent Sexuality in a Changing American Society (NIH Pub. No. 80-1426, 1980).

The petitioner contends that the statute is overinclusive because it does not allow a defense that contraceptives were used, or that procreation was for some other reason impossible. The petitioner does not allege, however, that he used a contraceptive, or that pregnancy could not have resulted from the conduct with which he was charged. But even assuming the petitioner's standing to raise the claim of overbreadth, it is clear that a statute recognizing the defenses he suggests would encounter difficult, if not impossible, problems of proof.

[Footnote 2/11]

See, e.g., Phipps-Yonas, Tecnage Pregnancy and Motherhood, 50 Am.J.Orthopsychiatry 403, 412 (1980). See also State v. Rundlett, 391 A.2d 815, 819, n. 13, 822 (Me.); Rundlett v. Oliver, 607 F.2d 495, 502 (CA1).

[Footnote 2/12]

See Barnes v. State, 244 Ga. 302, 260 S.E.2d 40; see generally Orr & Prietto, supra; Jaffee, Dynneson, & ten Bensel, supra; Chilman, supra.

[Footnote 2/13]

The fact is that a gender-neutral statute would not necessarily lead to a closer fit with the aim of reducing the problems associated with teenage pregnancy. If both parties were equally liable to prosecution, a female would be far less likely to complain; the very complaint would be self-incriminating. Accordingly, it is possible that a gender-neutral statute would result in fewer prosecutions than the one before us.

In any event, a state legislature is free to address itself to what it believes to be the most serious aspect of a broader problem.

"[T]he Equal Protection Clause does not require that a State must choose between attacking every aspect of a problem or not attacking the problem at all."

Dandridge v. Williams,397 U. S. 471, 397 U. S. 486-487; see also Williamson v. Lee Optical Co.,348 U. S. 483.

JUSTICE BLACKMUN, concurring in the judgment.

It is gratifying that the plurality recognizes that, "[a]t the risk of stating the obvious, teenage pregnancies . . . have increased dramatically over the last two decades," and "have significant social, medical, and economic consequences for both

Page 450 U. S. 482

the mother and.her child, and the State." Ante at 450 U. S. 470 (footnotes omitted). There have been times when I have wondered whether the Court was capable of this perception, particularly when it has struggled with the different but not unrelated problems that attend abortion issues. See, for example, the opinions (and the dissenting opinions) in Beal v. Doe,432 U. S. 438 (1977); Maher v. Roe,432 U. S. 464 (1977); Poelker v. Doe,432 U. S. 519 (1977); Harris v. McRae,448 U. S. 297 (1980); Williams v. Zbaraz,448 U. S. 358 (1980); and today's opinion in H.L. v. Matheson, ante p. 450 U. S. 389.

Some might conclude that the two uses of the criminal sanction -- here flatly to forbid intercourse in order to forestall teenage pregnancies, and, in Matheson, to prohibit a physician's abortion procedure except upon notice to the parents of the pregnant minor -- are vastly different proscriptions. But the basic social and privacy problems are much the same. Both Utah's statute in Matheson and California's statute in this case are legislatively created tools intended to achieve similar ends and addressed to the same societal concerns: the control and direction of young people's sexual activities. The plurality opinion impliedly concedes as much when it notes that "approximately half of all teenage pregnancies end in abortion," and that "those children who are born" are "likely candidates to become wards of the State," Ante at 450 U. S. 471, and n. 6.

I, however, cannot vote to strike down the California statutory rape law, for I think it is a sufficiently reasoned and constitutional effort to control the problem at its inception. For me, there is an important difference between this state action and a State's adamant and rigid refusal to face, or even to recognize, the "significant . . consequences" -- to the woman -- of a forced or unwanted conception. I have found it difficult to rule constitutional, for example, state efforts to block, at that later point, a woman's attempt to deal with the enormity of the problem confronting her, just as I have rejected state efforts to prevent women from rationally taking

Page 450 U. S. 483

steps to prevent that problem from arising. See, e.g., Carey v. Population Services International,431 U. S. 678 (1977). See also Griswold v. Connecticut,381 U. S. 479 (1965). In contrast, I am persuaded that, although a minor has substantial privacy rights in intimate affairs connected with procreation, California's efforts to prevent teenage pregnancy are to be viewed differently from Utah's efforts to inhibit a woman from dealing with pregnancy once it has become an inevitability.

Craig v. Boren,429 U. S. 190 (1976), was an opinion which, in large part, I joined, id. at 429 U. S. 214. The plurality opinion in the present case points out, ante at 450 U. S. 468-469, the Court's respective phrasings of the applicable test in Reed v. Reed,404 U. S. 71, 404 U. S. 76 (1971), and in Craig v. Boren, 429 U.S. at 429 U. S. 197. I vote to affirm the judgment of the Supreme Court of California and to uphold the State's gender-based classification on that test and as exemplified by those two cases and by Schlesinger v. Ballard,419 U. S. 498 (1975); Weinberger v. Wiesenfeld,420 U. S. 636 (1975); and Kahn v. Shevin,416 U. S. 351 (1974).

I note also that § 261.5 of the California Penal Code is just one of several California statutes intended to protect the juvenile. JUSTICE STEWART, in his concurring opinion, appropriately observes that § 261.5 is

"but one part of a broad statutory scheme that protects all minors from the problems and risks attendant upon adolescent sexual activity."

Ante at 450 U. S. 477.

I think too that it is only fair, with respect to this particular petitioner, to point out that his partner, Sharon, appears not to have been an unwilling participant in at least the initial stages of the intimacies that took place the night of June 3, 1978. * Petitioner's and Sharon's nonacquaintance

Page 450 U. S. 484

with each other before the incident: their drinking; their withdrawal from the others of the group; their foreplay, in which she willingly participated and seems to have encouraged;

Page 450 U. S. 485

and the closeness of their ages (a difference of only one year and 18 days) are factors that should make this case an unattractive one to prosecute at all, and especially to prosecute

Page 450 U. S. 486

as a felony, rather than as a misdemeanor chargeable under § 261.5. But the State has chosen to prosecute in that

Page 450 U. S. 487

manner, and the facts, I reluctantly conclude, may fit the crime.

Page 450 U. S. 488

* Sharon at the preliminary hearing testified as follows:

"Q [By the Deputy District Attorney]. On June the 4th, at approximately midnight -- midnight of June the 3rd, were you in Rohnert Park?"

"A [by Sharon]. Yes."

"Q. Is that in Sonoma County?"

"A. Yes."

"Q. Did anything unusual happen to you that night in Rohnert Park?"

"A. Yes."

"Q. Would you briefly describe what happened that night? Did you see the defendant that night in Rohnert Park?"

"A. Yes."

"Q. Where did you first meet him?"

"A. At a bus stop."

"Q. Was anyone with you?"

"A. My sister."

"Q. Was anyone with the defendant?"

"A. Yes."

"Q. How many people were with the defendant?"

"A. Two."

"Q. Now, after you met the defendant, what happened?"

"A. We walked down to the railroad tracks."

"Q. What happened at the railroad tracks?"

"A. We were drinking at the railroad tracks and we walked over to this bush and he started kissing me and stuff, and I was kissing him back, too, at first. Then, I was telling him to stop -- "

"Q. Yes."

"A. -- and I was telling him to slow down and stop. He said, 'Okay, okay.' But then he just kept doing it. He just kept doing it, and then my sister and two other guys came over to where we were and my sister said -- told me to get up and come home. And then I didn't -- "

"Q. Yes."

"A. -- and then my sister and -- "

"Q. All right."

"A. -- David, one of the boys that were there, started walking home, and we stayed there, and then later -- "

"Q. All right."

"A. -- Bruce left Michael, you know."

"The Court: Michael being the defendant?"

"The Witness: Yeah. We was laying there and we were kissing each other, and then he asked me if I wanted to walk him over to the park; so we walked over to the park and we sat down on a bench and then he started kissing me again, and we were laying on the bench. And he told me to take my pants off."

"I said, 'No,' and I was trying to get up and he hit me back down on the bench, and then I just said to myself, 'Forget it,' and I let him do what he wanted to do, and he took my pants off and he was telling me to put my legs around him and stuff -- "

"Q. Did you have sexual intercourse with the defendant?"

"A. Yeah."

"Q. He did put his penis into your vagina?"

"A. Yes."

"Q. You said that he hit you?"

"A. Yeah."

"Q. How did he hit you?"

"A. He slugged me in the face."

"Q. With what did he slug you?"

"A. His fist."

"Q. Where abouts in the face?"

"A. On my chin."

"Q. As a result of that, did you have any bruises or any kind of an injury?"

"A. Yeah."

"Q. What happened?"

"A. I had bruises."

"The Court: Did he hit you one time or did he hit you more than once?"

"The Witness: He hit me about two or three times."

* * * *

"Q. Now, during the course of that evening, did the defendant ask you your age?"

"A. Yeah."

"Q. And what did you tell him?"

"A. Sixteen."

"Q. Did you tell him you were sixteen?"

"A. Yes."

"Q. Now, you said you had been drinking, is that correct?"

"A. Yes."

"Q. Would you describe your condition as a result of the drinking?"

"A. I was a little drunk."

App. 20-23.

CROSS-EXAMINATION

"Q. Did you go off with Mr. M. away from the others?"

"A. Yeah."

"Q. Why did you do that?"

"A. I don't know. I guess I wanted to."

"Q. Did you have any need to go to the bathroom when you were there."

"A. Yes."

"Q. And what did you do?"

"A. Me and my sister walked down the railroad tracks to some bushes and went to the bathroom."

"Q. Now, you and Mr. M., as I understand it, went off into the bushes, is that correct?"

"A. Yes."

"Q. Okay. And what did you do when you and Mr. M. were there in the bushes?"

"A. We were kissing and hugging."

"Q. Were you sitting up?"

"A. We were laying down."

"Q. You were lying down. This was in the bushes?"

"A. Yes."

"Q. How far away from the rest of them were you?"

"A. They were just bushes right next to the railroad tracks. We just walked off into the bushes; not very far."

* * * *

"Q. So your sister and the other two boys came over to where you were, you and Michael were, is that right?"

"A. Yeah."

"Q. What did they say to you, if you remember?"

"A. My sister didn't say anything. She said, 'Come on, Sharon, let's go home.'"

"Q. She asked you to go home with her?"

"A. (Affirmative nod.)"

"Q. Did you go home with her?"

"A. No."

"Q. You wanted to stay with Mr. M.?"

"A. I don't know."

"Q. Was this before or after he hit you?"

"A. Before."

* * * *

"Q. What happened in the five minutes that Bruce stayed there with you and Michael?"

"A. I don't remember."

"Q. You don't remember at all?"

"A. (Negative head shake.)"

"Q. Did you have occasion at that time to kiss Bruce?"

"A. Yeah."

"Q, You did? You were kissing Bruce at that time?"

"A. (Affirmative nod.)"

"Q. Was Bruce kissing you?"

"A. Yes."

"Q. And were you standing up at this time?"

"A. No, we were sitting down."

"Q. Okay, so at this point in time, you had left Mr, M. and you were hugging and kissing with Bruce, is that right?"

"A. Yeah."

"Q. And you were sitting up."

"A. Yes,"

"Q. Was your sister still there then?"

"A. No. Yeah, she was at first"

"Q. What was she doing?"

"A. She was standing up with Michael and David,"

"Q. Yes. Was she doing anything with Michael and David?"

"A. No, I don't think so."

"Q. Whose idea was it for you and Bruce to kiss? Did you initiate that?"

"A. Yes."

"Q. What happened after Bruce left?"

"A. Michael asked me if I wanted to go walk to the park."

"Q. And what did you say?"

"A. I said 'Yes.'"

"Q. And then what happened?"

"A. We walked to the park,"

* * * *

"Q. How long did it take you to get to the park?"

"A. About ten or fifteen minutes."

"Q. And did you walk there?"

"A. Yes."

"Q. Did Mr. M. ever mention his name?"

"A. Yes."

Id. at 27-32.

JUSTICE BRENNAN, with whom JUSTICES WHITE and MARSHALL join, dissenting.

It is disturbing to find the Court so splintered on a case that presents such a straightforward issue: whether the admittedly gender-based classification in Cal.Penal Code Ann. 261.5 (West Supp. 1981) bears a sufficient relationship to the State's asserted goal of preventing teenage pregnancies to survive the "mid-level" constitutional scrutiny mandated by Craig v. Boren,429 U. S. 190 (1976). [Footnote 3/1] Applying the analytical framework provided by our precedents, I am convinced that there is only one proper resolution of this issue: the classification must be declared unconstitutional. I fear that the plurality opinion and JUSTICES STEWART and BLACKMUN reach the opposite result by placing too much emphasis on the desirability of achieving the State's asserted statutory goal -- prevention of teenage pregnancy -- and not enough emphasis on the fundamental question of whether the sex-based discrimination

Page 450 U. S. 489

in the California statute is substantially related to the achievement of that goal. [Footnote 3/2]

II

After some uncertainty as to the proper framework for analyzing equal protection challenges to statutes containing gender-based classifications, see ante at 450 U. S. 468, this Court settled upon the proposition that a statute containin a gender-based classification cannot withstand constitutional challenge unless

Page 450 U. S. 490

the classification is substantially related to the achievement of an important governmental objective. Kirchberg v. Feenstra, ante at 450 U. S. 459; Wengler v. Druggists Mutual Ins. Co.,446 U. S. 142, 446 U. S. 150 (1980); Califano v. Westcott,443 U. S. 76, 443 U. S. 85 (1979); Caban v. Mohammed,441 U. S. 380, 441 U. S. 388 (1979); Orr v. Orr,440 U. S. 268, 440 U. S. 279 (1979); Califano v. Goldfarb,430 U. S. 199, 430 U. S. 210-211 (1977); Califano v. Webster,430 U. S. 313, 430 U. S. 316-317 (1977); Craig v. Boren, supra at 429 U. S. 197. This analysis applies whether the classification discriminates against males or against females. Caban v. Mohammed, supra at 441 U. S. 394; Orr v. Orr, supra at 440 U. S. 278-279; Craig v. Boren, supra, at 429 U. S. 204. The burden is on the government to prove both the importance of its asserted objective and the substantial relationship between the classification and that objective. See Kirchberg v. Feenstra, ante at 450 U. S. 461; Wengler v. Druggists Mutual Ins. Co., supra at 446 U. S. 151-152; Caban v. Mohammed, supra at 441 U. S. 393; Craig v. Boren, supra at 429 U. S. 204. And the State cannot meet that burden without showing that a gender-neutral statute would be a less effective means of achieving that goal. Wengler v. Druggists Mutual Ins. Co., supra at 446 U. S. 151-152; Orr v. Orr, supra, at 440 U. S. 281, 283. [Footnote 3/3]

The State of California vigorously asserts that the "important governmental objective" to be served by § 261.5 is the prevention of teenage pregnancy. It claims that its statute furthers this goal by deterring sexual activity by males -- the class of persons it considers more responsible for causing those pregnancies. [Footnote 3/4] But even assuming that prevention of teenage

Page 450 U. S. 491

pregnancy is an important governmental objective and that it is, in fact, an objective of § 261.5, see infra, at 450 U. S. 491-196, California still has the burden of proving that there are fewer teenage pregnancies under its gender-based statutory rape law than there would be if the law were gender-neutral. To meet this burden, the State must show that, because its statutory rape law punishes only males, and not females, it more effectively deters minor females from having sexual intercourse. [Footnote 3/5]

The plurality assumes that a gender-neutral statute would be less effective than § 261.5 in deterring sexual activity because a gender-neutral statute would create significant enforcement problems. The plurality thus accepts the State's assertion that

"a female is surely less likely to report violations of the statute if she herself would be subject to crimina prosecution.

Page 450 U. S. 492

In an area already fraught with prosecutorial difficulties, we decline to hold that the Equal Protection Clause requires a legislature to enact a statute so broad that it may well be incapable of enforcement."

Ante at 450 U. S. 473-474 (footnotes omitted). However, a State's bare assertion that its gender-based statutory classification substantially furthers an important governmental interest is not enough to meet its burden of proof under Craig v. Boren. Rather, the State must produce evidence that will persuade the court that its assertion is true. See Craig v. Boren, 429 U.S. at 429 U. S. 200-204.

The State has not produced such evidence in this case. Moreover, there are at least two serious flaws in the State's assertion that law enforcement problems created by a gender-neutral statutory rape law would make such a statute less effective than a gender-based statute in deterring sexual activity.

First, the experience of other jurisdictions, and California itself, belies the plurality's conclusion that a gender-neutral statutory rape law "may well be incapable of enforcement." There are now at least 37 States that have enacted gender-neutral statutory rape laws. Although most of these laws protect young persons (of either sex) from the sexual exploitation of older individuals, the laws of Arizona, Florida, and Illinois permit prosecution of both minor females and minor males for engaging in mutual sexual conduct. [Footnote 3/6] California has introduced no evidence that those States have been handicapped

Page 450 U. S. 493

by the enforcement problems the plurality finds so persuasive. [Footnote 3/7] Surely, if those States could provide such evidence, we might expect that California would have introduced it.

In addition, the California Legislature in recent years has revised other sections of the Penal Code to make them gender-neutral. For example, Cal.Penal Code Ann. §§ 286(b)(1) and 288a(b)(1) (West Supp. 1981), prohibiting sodomy and oral copulation with a "person who is under 18 years of age," could cause two minor homosexuals to be subjected to criminal sanctions for engaging in mutually consensual conduct. Again, the State has introduced no evidence to explain why a gender-neutral statutory rape law would be any more difficult to enforce than those statutes.

The second flaw in the State's assertion is that, even assuming that a gender-neutral statute would be more difficult to enforce, the State has still not shown that those enforcement problems would make such a statute less effective than a gender-based statute in deterring minor females from engaging in sexual intercourse. [Footnote 3/8] Common sense, however, suggests

Page 450 U. S. 494

that a gende-neutral statutory rape law is potentially a rgeater deterrent of sexual activity than a gender-based law, for the simple reason that a gender-neutral law subjects both men and women to criminal sanctions, and thus arguably has a deterrent effect on twice as many potential violators. Even if fewer persons were prosecuted under the gender-neutral law, as the State suggests, it would still be true that twice as many persons would be subject to arrest. The State's failure to prove that a gender-neutral law would be a less effective deterrent than a gender-based law, like the State's failure to prove that a gender-neutral law would be difficult to enforce, should have led this Court to invalidate § 261.5.

III

Until very recently, no California court or commentator had suggested that the purpose of California's statutory rape law was to protect young women from the risk of pregnancy. Indeed, the historical development of § 261.5 demonstrates that the law was initially enacted on the premise that young women, in contrast to young men, were to be deemed legally incapable of consenting to an act of sexual intercourse. [Footnote 3/9] Because

Page 450 U. S. 495

their chastity was considered particularly precious, those young women were felt to be uniquely in need of the State's protection. [Footnote 3/10] In contrast, young men were assumed to

Page 450 U. S. 496

be capable of making such decisions for themselves; the law therefore did not offer them any special protection.

It is perhaps because the gender classifiation in California's statutory rape law was initially designed to further these outmoded sexual stereotypes, rather than to reduce the incidence of teenage pregnancies, that the State has been unable to demonstrate a substantial relationship beween the classification and its newly asserted goal. Cf. Califano v. Goldfarb, 430 U.S. at 430 U. S. 223 (STEVENS, J., concurring in judgment). But whatever the reason, the State has not shown that Cal.Penal Cod § 261.5 is any more effective than a gender-neutral law would be in deterring minor females from engaging in sexual intercourse. It has therefore not met its burden of proving that the statutory classification is substantially related to the achievement of its asserted goal.

I would hold that § 261.5 violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, and I would reverse the judgment of the California Supreme Court.

[Footnote 3/1]

The California Supreme Court acknowledged, and indeed the parties do not dispute, that Cal.Penal Code Ann. § 261.5 (West Supp. 1981) discriminates on the basis of sex. Ante at 450 U. S. 467. Because petitioner is male, he faces criminal felony charges and a possible prison term, while his female partner remains immune from prosecution. The gender of the participants, not their relative responsibility, determines which of them is subject to criminal sanctions under § 2615

As the California Supreme Court stated in People v. Hernandez, 61 Cal.2d 529, 531, 393 P.2d 673, 674 (1964) (footnote omitted):

"[E]ven in circumstances where a girl's actual comprehension contradicts the law's presumption [that a minor female is too innocent and naive to understand the implications and nature of her act], the male is deemed criminally responsible for the act, although himself young and naive and responding to advances which may have been made to him."

[Footnote 3/2]

None of the three opinions upholding the California statute fairly applies the equal protection analysis this Court has so carefully developed since Craig v. Boren,429 U. S. 190 (1976). The plurality opinion, for example, focusing on the obvious and uncontested fact that only females can become pregnant, suggests that the statutory gender discrimination, rather than being invidious, actually ensures equality of treatment. Since only females are subject. to a risk of pregnancy, the plurality opinion concludes that "[a] criminal sanction imposed solely on males . . . serves to roughly equalize' the deterrents on the sexes." Ante at 450 U. S. 473. JUSTICE STEWART adopts a similar approach. Recognizing that "females can become pregnant as the result of sexual intercourse; males cannot," JUSTICE STEWART concludes that "[y]oung women and men are not similarly situated with respect to the problems and risks associated with intercourse and pregnancy," and therefore § 261.5 "is realistically related to the legitimate state purpose of reducing those problems and risks" (emphasis added). Ante at 450 U. S. 478, 450 U. S. 479. JUSTICE BLACKMUN, conceding that some limits must. be placed on a State's power to regulate "the control and direction of young people's sexual activities," also finds the statute constitutional. Ante at 450 U. S. 482. He distinguishes the State's power in the abortion context, where the pregnancy has already occurred, from its power in the present context, where the "problem [is] at its inception." He then concludes, without explanation, that "the California statutory rape law . . . is a sufficiently reasoned and constitutional effort to control the problem at its inception." Ibid.

All three of these approaches have a common failing. They overlook the fact that the State has not met its hurden of proving that the gender discrimination in § 261.5 is substantially related to the achievement of the State's asserted statutory goal. My Brethren seem not to recognize that California has the burden of proving that a gender-neutral statutory rape law would be less effective than § 261.5 in deterring sexual activity leading to teenage pregnancy. Because they fail to analyze the issue in these terms, I believe they reach an unsupportable result.

[Footnote 3/3]

Gender-based statutory rape laws were struck down in Navedo v. Preisser, 630 F.2d 636 (CA8 1980), United State v. Hicks, 625 F.2d 216 (CA9 1980), and Meloon v. Helgemoe, 564 F.2d 602 (CA1 1977), cert. denied, 436 U.S. 950 (1978), precisely because the government failed to meet this burden of proof.

[Footnote 3/4]

In a remarkable display of sexual stereotyping, the California Supreme Court stated:

"The Legislature is well within its power in imposing criminal sanctions against males alone, because they are the only persons who may physiologically cause the result which the law properly seeks to avoid."

25 Cal.3d 608, 612, 601 P.2d 572, 575 (1979) (emphasis in original).

[Footnote 3/5]

Petitioner has not questioned the State's constitutional power to achieve its asserted objective by criminalizing consensual sexual activity. However, I note that our cases would not foreclose such a privacy challenge.

The State is attempting to reduce the incidence of teenage pregnancy by imposing criminal sanctions on those who engage in consensual sexual activity with minor females. We have stressed, however, that,

"[i]f the right of privacy means anything, it is the right of the individual, married or single, to be free from unwarranted governmental intrusion into matters so fundamentally affecting a person as the decision whether to bear or beget a child."

Eisenstadt v. Baird,405 U. S. 438, 405 U. S. 453 (1972) (footnote omitted). Minors, too, enjoy a right of privacy in connection with decisions affecting procreation. Carey v. Population Services International,431 U. S. 678, 431 U. S. 693 (1977). Thus, despite the suggestion of the plurality to the contrary, ante at 450 U. S. 472-473, n. 8, it is not settled that a State may rely on a pregnancy prevention justification to make consensual sexual intercourse among minors a criminal act.

[Footnote 3/6]

See Ariz.Rev.Stat.Ann. § 13-1405 (1978); Fla.Stat. § 794.05 (1979); Ill.Rev.Stat., ch. 38,

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