O'Brien v. MillerAnnotate this Case
168 U.S. 287 (1891)
U.S. Supreme Court
O'Brien v. Miller, 168 U.S. 287 (1897)
O'Brien v. Miller
Argued April 2, 1897
Decided November 29, 1891
168 U.S. 287
CERTIORARI TO THE CIRCUIT COURT
OF APPEALS FOR THE SECOND CIRCUIT
The Johnson, an American ship, was chartered at Valparaiso to carry a cargo of nitrate of soda, of 1938 tons, from Caleta to Hamburg consigned to a London firm. On the way, she sprang a leak, and put into Callao. There 1200 tons of the cargo were transferred to the Leslie, a British bark, and the Johnson was repaired, the master executing a bottomry bond to meet the expenses of the repairs. That bond bound the Johnson, cargo and freight, hypothecated the portion of the cargo transhipped to the bark and further provided that
"if during the said voyage an utter loss of the said vessel [in the singular] by fire, enemies, pirates, the perils of the sea or navigation, or any other casualty shall unavoidably happen, . . . then and in either of the said cases this obligation shall be void."
Both vessels sailed for Hamburg. The Johnson collided at sea with the Thirlmere, a British vessel, and was sunk with a total loss. The bark reached Hamburg safely. The consignees, in order to obtain the cargo, agreed to refer to arbitration by German lawyers the question of its liability for the whole amount of the bond. They decided that it was so liable, and the consignees paid the amount of the bond and received the cargo. The owners of the Johnson libelled the Thirlmere and its owners. The latter were held not to be personally liable, and judgment was rendered only for the value of the Thirlmere. The insurers of the Johnson also paid to its owners the amount of the policies of insurance, and the latter, after receiving the amount of the judgment against the Thirlmere, paid to the insurers their proportionate part of it. This suit was then instituted by the consignors and the consignees of the cargo of the bark to recover from the owners of the Johnson their share of the sum paid on the bottomry bond.
(1) That the terms of the bottomry bond included not only the Andrew Johnson and her cargo, but the cargo transhipped on the Leslie.
(2) That the owners of the Johnson, to the extent of the damages paid on account of the collision, were liable to the libellants, as creditors of the ship.
In interpreting a contract, the whole contract must be brought into view, and it must be interpreted with reference to the nature of the obligations between the parties and the intention which they have manifested in forming them, and this rule is especially applicable to the interpretation of contracts of bottomry and respondentia.
In an action to recover on a bottomry bond from the shipowner for advances
made for his benefit and charged upon the property of the cargo owner's by the master, if he questions the power of the master to execute the instrument of hypothecation, it is his duty to plead it in defense.
The action of the district judge in refusing to permit the respondent to amend his answer by setting up the plea of laches and res judicata was not error.
The case is stated in the opinion.
MR. JUSTICE WHITE delivered the opinion of the Court.
By a charter party executed at Valparaiso, Chili, on April 5, 1884, Gibbs & Co., of the place named, chartered the ship Andrew Johnson to carry a cargo of nitrate of soda from Iquique and Caleta "to any safe port in the United Kingdom or on the continent between Havre and Hamburg, both included, as ordered." After loading at the places named, the Andrew Johnson, pursuant to orders, sailed on July 15, 1884, for Hamburg, the cargo on board being consigned to the order of Antony Gibbs & Sons, a firm doing business in London. On the 4th of August following, the vessel, being in distress, put into Callao. Certain necessary repairs, which were advised by a duly appointed board of survey, were made, and upon the recommendation of the board, 8,449 bags, or about 1,200 tons, of the nitrate of soda were transhipped to the British bark Mary J. Leslie, to be conveyed by that vessel to Hamburg.
To defray the expenses incurred in the port of refuge, the master of the Andrew Johnson executed a bottomry and respondentia bond to the firm of Grace Bros. & Co. This bond not only bound the ship Andrew Johnson and her cargo and freight, but also, in express terms, hypothecated the cargo transhipped to the Mary J. Leslie. Although both cargoes were thus bound, the bond, in its defeasance clause, provided that it should be void
"if, during the said voyage, an utter loss of the said vessel by fire, enemies, pirates, the perils
of the sea or navigation, or any other casualty, shall unavoidably happen."
A copy of the bond is found in the margin. * The two vessels sailed for Hamburg. The Leslie arrived,
but the Johnson perished at sea as the result of a collision with the British ship Thirlmere. After the arrival of the Leslie at Hamburg, demand was made upon the representatives
of Antony Gibbs & Sons, the consignees of the nitrate of soda which had been shipped on the Leslie, for payment in full of the amount of the bond, and, in order to obtain possession of the cargo, the consignees entered into an agreement by which the question of the liability of the nitrate of soda on the Leslie for the entire amount of the bond was to be determined by arbitration, the arbitrators to be selected by, and their decision to be binding upon, the respective parties. It is to be inferred that the only question controverted before the arbitrators was whether the use of the words "said vessel" in the defeasance clause of the bond operated to avoid the bond in consequence of the wreck of the Andrew Johnson and the loss of her cargo. The German lawyers who were selected as arbitrators found that the nitrate of soda on board the Leslie was bound for the whole amount of the bond, and that therefore the consignees were not entitled to the cargo unless they paid the bond. Their award was as follows:
"We formulate the question which you, in the names of Messrs. Antony Gibbs & Sons and Messrs. Baring Brothers & Co., have submitted to our judgment as follows:"
"Whether the portion of the cargo of nitrate of soda of the
Andrew Johnson, brought home per Mary J. Leslie, is liable for the whole amount of the bottomry bond, which was signed in Callao, and whether, consequently, the receiver of this portion of the cargo has to pay the whole of the bottomry bond, provided the value of this portion of the cargo is not less than the amount of the bottomry debt?"
"This question we must answer in the affirmative because, according to the law here, ship, freight, and cargo of the Andrew Johnson, as well as the portion of the cargo which was transhipped into the Mary J. Leslie, are jointly liable for the whole amount raised on bottomry at Callao, and therefore the Andrew Johnson and her cargo having become a total loss, the holder of the bottomry bond can come upon that portion of the cargo which was shipped by the Mary J. Leslie for the whole amount of his claim."
"Some doubt might be raised as to whether, according to the wording of the bottomry bond, the money was not lent or appear to be lent contingent upon the safety of the Andrew Johnson, and becoming due only after her arrival at her port of destination, but becoming null and void in the event of her nonarrival. We are of opinion, however, that this interpretation is not consistent with the real intention of the contracting parties, and that the wording referred to has originated in the not sufficiently careful use and employment of a form of bond which happened to be at hand. This seems the less doubtful to us for this reason: that, if the bottomry bond were interpreted in this manner, the cargo of the Mary J. Leslie would be entirely liberated, after the loss of the Andrew Johnson occurred, and would not even bear a portion of the bottomry debt, which nevertheless has arisen out of a case of general average. Manifestly, this cannot have been the intention of the parties interested."
Antony Gibbs & Sons paid the amount of the bond for account of Gibbs & Co., the consignors. Subsequently the owners of the Andrew Johnson commenced legal proceedings against the Thirlmere to hold that vessel responsible for the collision by which the Johnson and her cargo were lost. The Thirlmere availed herself of the statute of Great Britain
limiting the liability of shipowners, and the result was an award finding the Thirlmere to be wholly at fault, and condemning her to pay the loss caused by the sinking of the Johnson. As their proportion of the ascertained value of the Thirlmere, the owners of the Johnson, for ship and freight, were allowed the sum of
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